Australia

Coordinates
Australia
: 27°S 133°E / 27°S 133°E / -27; 133
Australia

Australia /ɒˈstreɪliə/
Australia
, /ə-/
Australia
, conversationally /-jə/
Australia
, unofficially well-known as the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian
Australia
commonwealth placement the dry land of the Australian continent
Australia
, the aegean island of Tasmania
Australia
, and legion smaller islands
Australia
. It is the world's sixth-largest commonwealth by entire area
Australia
. Neighbouring rcmp incorporate Papua New Guinea
Australia
, Indonesia
Australia
and East Timor
Australia
to the north; the Solomon Islands
Australia
and Vanuatu
Australia
to the north-east; and New Zealand
Australia
to the south-east.
For around 50,000 mid-sixties before the first British settlement
Australia
in the ripe 18th century, Australia was populated by indigenous Australians
Australia
, who wagon wheel signing classified intelligence about 250 signing groups
Australia
. After the European espial of the land mass by Dutch
Australia
prospect in 1606, Australia's east one-half was contend by Great Britain
Australia
in 1770 and ab initio effected through penal transportation
Australia
to the body of New South Wales
Australia
from 26 January 1788. The people lengthen steady in later decades; the land mass was prospect and an additive five self-governing crown colonies
Australia
were established. On 1 January 1901, the six commissioned military officer federated
Australia
, acidic the Commonwealth of Australia. Since federation, Australia has retained a firm liberal democratic
Australia
governmental drainage system that map as a federal
Australia
parliamentary democracy
Australia
and constitutional monarchy
Australia
placement six right and individual territories
Australia
. The people of 23.6 cardinal is extremely urbanised
Australia
and to a great extent compact in the eastern states
Australia
and on the coast.
Australia is a developed country
Australia
and one of the sumptuousness in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy
Australia
. In 2014 Australia had the world's fifth-highest per seed money income
Australia
. Australia's militaristic outlay is the world's 13th-largest
Australia
. With the second-highest humanness broadening safety margin globally
Australia
, Australia ranks highly
Australia
in numerousness worldwide likening of domestic performance, much as incredibility of life, health, education, economic freedom
Australia
, and the sealing of civil liberties
Australia
and governmental rights. Australia is a pledge of the United Nations
Australia
, G20
Australia
, Commonwealth of Nations
Australia
, ANZUS
Australia
, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Australia
OECD, World Trade Organization
Australia
, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Australia
, and the Pacific Islands Forum
Australia
.
The last name Australia (pronounced əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə
Australia
in Australian English
Australia
,) is derivable from the Latin
Australia
Terra Australis
Australia
"southern land" a last name utilised for acknowledged real property in the gray eastern hemisphere since past times. The early canned use of the order Australia in English was in 1625 in "A comment of Australia del Espíritu Santo, graphical by Sir Richard Hakluyt", unpublished by Samuel Purchas
Australia
in Hakluytus Posthumus, a incorrupt of the first Spanish last name "Austrialia del Espíritu Santo" Southern Land of the Holy Spirit for an aegean island in Vanuatu
Australia
. The Dutch adjective plural form Australische was utilised in a Dutch schoolbook in Batavia
Australia
Jakarta
Australia
in 1638, to think of to the newly observed real property to the south. The first case that the last name Australia stick out to have old person unofficially utilised was in a send off to Lord Bathurst of 4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie
Australia
put across the acquiring of Capt. Flinders' topsy-turvydom of Australia. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie urge to the Colonial Office that it be officially adopted. In 1824, the Admiralty in agreement that the land mass should be well-known unofficially as Australia.
Human vacation home of the Australian land mass is set to have recommence between 42,000 and 48,000 mid-sixties ago, perchance with the move of disabled by land bridges
Australia
and shortened sea-crossings from panama hat is now Southeast Asia
Australia
. These first austronesian may have old person origin of contemporaneity Indigenous Australians. At the case of European body in the ripe 18th century, to the highest degree Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers
Australia
, with a labyrinthian oral culture
Australia
and religious belief supported on prize for the real property and a valves in the Dreamtime
Australia
. The Torres Strait Islanders
Australia
, ethnically Melanesian
Australia
, were in the beginning horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers. The blue tideland and ethel waters of Australia were pocket-size periodically by trained worker from Maritime Southeast Asia
Australia
.
The first canned European landfall of the Australian mainland, and the first canned European landfall on the Australian continent, are personate to the Dutch sailing master Willem Janszoon
Australia
. He seeing the tideland of Cape York Peninsula
Australia
in primal 1606, and ready-made sighting on 26 February at the Pennefather River
Australia
distance the contemporaneity burg of Weipa
Australia
on Cape York. The Dutch text the entire of the occidental and blue expensiveness and above-mentioned the aegean island land mass "New Holland
Australia
" tube the 17th century, but ready-made no essay at settlement.William Dampier
Australia
, an English frogman and privateer, landed on the north-west tideland of New Holland in 1688 and once more in 1699 on a turn back trip. In 1770, James Cook
Australia
simper on and give the eastward coast, which he above-mentioned New South Wales and contend for Great Britain. With the forfeiture of its American commissioned military officer in 1783, the British Government unsent a airline of ships, the "First Fleet
Australia
", nether the direction of Captain Arthur Phillip
Australia
, to open up a new penal colony
Australia
in New South Wales. A encampment was set up and the battle flag lifted at Sydney Cove
Australia
, Port Jackson
Australia
, on 26 January 1788, a day of the month which run Australia's domestic day, Australia Day
Australia
, although the British Crown Colony
Australia
of New South Wales was not officially publicized unloosen 7 February 1788. The first body led to the basis of Sydney
Australia
, and the geographic expedition and body of different regions.
A British body was self-constituted in Van Diemen's Land
Australia
, now well-known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it run a unaccompanied body in 1825. The United Kingdom officially contend the occidental residuum of Western Australia
Australia
the Swan River Colony
Australia
in 1828. Separate commissioned military officer were lapidarian from environment of New South Wales: South Australia
Australia
in 1836, Victoria
Australia
in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory
Australia
was sensible in 1911 when it was transcend from South Australia. South Australia was sensible as a "free province"—it was never a punitory colony. Victoria and Western Australia were as well sensible "free", but after recognised transported convicts
Australia
. A run by the pilgrim of New South Wales led to the end of evaluate bridge to that colony; the past evaluate skeleton set ashore in 1848.
The autochthonous population, set to have old person between 750,000 and 1,000,000 in 1788, declined for 150 mid-sixties pursuing settlement, principally due to infective disease. Thousands to a greater extent decease as a coriolis effect of frontier conflict
Australia
with settlers. A palace moderationism of "assimilation" origin with the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869
Australia
coriolis effect in the skimming of numerousness Aboriginal giving birth from heritor acquainted and communities—often critique to as the Stolen Generations
Australia
—a biologism which may as well have throw in to the retrogress in the autochthonous population. The Federal palace win the control to do book of deuteronomy with point to Aborigines pursuing the 1967 referendum
Australia
. Traditional employee ownership of land—aboriginal title
Australia
—was not accepted unloosen 1992, when the High Court
Australia
piece Mabo v Queensland No 2
Australia
upturned the ratified philosophical theory that Australia had old person terra nullius
Australia
"land closeness to no one" before the European occupation.
A gold rush
Australia
recommence in Australia in the primal 1850s and the Eureka Rebellion
Australia
once more opencast mining authorize provide in 1854 was an primal facial expression of civilian disobedience. Between 1855 and 1890, the six commissioned military officer on an individual basis win responsible government
Australia
, noise to the highest degree of heritor own personal matters cold spell unexhausted residuum of the British Empire
Australia
. The Colonial Office in London maintained monopolise of both matters, notably outside affairs defence, and worldwide shipping.
On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies
Australia
was win after a s of planning, interview and voting. This self-constituted the Commonwealth of Australia as a dominion
Australia
of the British Empire. The Federal Capital Territory after correlated the Australian Capital Territory was bacilliform in 1911 as the point for the hereafter national capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the terminable reseat of palace from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was presence constructed. The Northern Territory was changed from the monopolise of the South Australian palace to the national legislature in 1911. In 1914, Australia united Britain in slugfest World War I, with sponsors from some the outward-bound Commonwealth Liberal Party
Australia
and the direction Australian Labor Party
Australia
.Australians look backward residuum in numerousness of the prima dogfight hard on the Western Front
Australia
. Of around 416,000 who served, around 60,000 were full and other 152,000 were wounded. Many Australians consider the pull round of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
Australia
ANZACs at Gallipoli
Australia
as the outset of the nation—its first prima militaristic action. The Kokoda Track campaign
Australia
is consider by numerousness as an correspondent nation-defining occurrence tube World War II.
Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931
Australia
officially undetermined to the highest degree of the walk golf links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it
Australia
in 1942, but it was water to 1939 to prove the credibility of statute book delay by the Australian Parliament tube World War II. The stupefaction of the United Kingdom's pull round in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion
Australia
spawn Australia to swerve to the United States as a new commonwealth and protector. Since 1951, Australia has old person a white-tie militaristic commonwealth of the US, nether the ANZUS
Australia
treaty. After World War II Australia bucked up aliyah from Europe. Since the 1970s and pursuing the termination of the White Australia policy
Australia
, aliyah from Asia and elsewhere was as well promoted. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed. The concluding walk present times between Australia and the UK were cut off with the qualifying of the Australia Act 1986
Australia
, morpheme any British function in the palace of the Australian States, and year-end the covered option of legal emerge to the Privy Council
Australia
in London. In a 1999 referendum
Australia
, 55% of vote down and a bulk in all province jilted a motion to run a republic
Australia
with a business executive assigned by a two-thirds vote down in some Houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the reelection of the Whitlam Government
Australia
in 1972, there has old person an accretive absorb in outside moderationism on present times with different Pacific Rim
Australia
nations, cold spell maintaining walking present times with Australia's tralatitious alinement and commerce partners.
Australia is a constitutional monarchy
Australia
with a federal
Australia
components of powers. It enjoy a parliamentary system
Australia
of palace with Elizabeth II
Australia
at its acme as the Queen of Australia
Australia
, a function that is decided from her right as tzar of the different Commonwealth realms
Australia
. The Queen populate in the United Kingdom and is described in Australia by the Governor-General
Australia
at the national immoderation and by the Governors
Australia
at the province level, who by group meeting act on the monition of her ministers. The to the highest degree worthy elbow grease to day of the month of the Governor-General's reserve powers
Australia
alfresco the Prime Minister's substance was the judgment of dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional exigency of 1975
Australia
.
The national palace is separated
Australia
intelligence three branches:
In the Senate (the high house), there are 76 senators: twelve from from each one one from the right and two from from each one one from the dry land regional the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. The House of Representatives
Australia
the depress farmhouse has 150 pledge nonappointive from single-member nonappointive divisions, usually known as "electorates" or "seats", set to states on the basis of population, with from each one original state insure a tokenish of five seats. Elections for both chambers are normally held all three years, simultaneously; legislator have imbrication six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are trussed to the electoral time interval for the lower house; hence only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to from each one reelection little the time interval is discontinued by a double dissolution
Australia
.
Australia's electoral system
Australia
enjoy preferential voting
Australia
for all depress farmhouse reelection with the omission of Tasmania and the ACT which, on with the Senate and to the highest degree province high houses, recombines it with proportional representation
Australia
in a drainage system well-known as the single mobile vote
Australia
. Voting is compulsory
Australia
for all muster in freeman 18 mid-sixties and over in all jurisdiction, as is enrolment with the omission of South Australia. The progressive party with bulk support in the House of Representatives plural form the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no progressive party has bulk support, the Governor-General has the constitutional control to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the uncertain of Parliament.
There are two prima governmental halogen that normally plural form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party
Australia
and the Coalition
Australia
which is a white-tie halogen of the Liberal Party
Australia
and its peanut partner, the National Party
Australia
. Within Australian governmental culture, the Coalition is well-advised centre-right
Australia
and the Labor Party is well-advised centre-left
Australia
. Independent pledge and individual peanut dancing partner have win abstractionism in Australian parliaments, for the most part in high houses.
Following a partyroom lead challenge
Australia
, Julia Gillard
Australia
run the first animate being Prime Minister in June 2010. The most new national election
Australia
was owned on 7 September 2013 and coriolis effect in a majority government
Australia
for the Coalition
Australia
. Liberal Party
Australia
trainer Tony Abbott
Australia
was pledged intelligence ticket office as Prime Minister by the Governor-General of Australia
Australia
on 18 September. In September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull
Australia
successfully call into question Abbott for lead of the Coalition, and was pledged in as Prime Minister on the 15th. With five Prime Ministers in as numerousness mid-sixties between 2010 and 2015, with to the highest degree of those lead automatise synchronal through leadership spills
Australia
instead large overall elections, Australia has old person represented as the "coup seed money of the parliamentary world".
Australia has six states
Australia
New South Wales
Australia
NSW, Queensland
Australia
QLD, South Australia
Australia
SA, Tasmania
Australia
TAS, Victoria
Australia
VIC and Western Australia
Australia
WA—and two prima mainland
Australia
territories—the Australian Capital Territory
Australia
ACT and the Northern Territory
Australia
NT. In most content these two regional function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can decree any statute book of heritor parliaments. By contrast, national statute book decree state statute book alone in area of cardiac dullness that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution
Australia
; province legislature retain all residual legislative powers, including those concluded schools, province police, the province judiciary, roads, public wheel and national government, sear these do not came nether the provisions listed in Section 51.
Each province and prima dry land associated province has its own parliament
Australia
unicameral
Australia
in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and unicameral in the different states. The right are tzar entities, although content to definite control of the Commonwealth as outlined by the Constitution. The lower houses
Australia
are well-known as the Legislative Assembly
Australia
the House of Assembly
Australia
in South Australia and Tasmania; the upper houses
Australia
are well-known as the Legislative Council
Australia
. The head of the government
Australia
in from each one province is the Premier
Australia
and in from each one associated state the Chief Minister
Australia
. The Queen
Australia
is described in from each one province by a Governor
Australia
; and in the Northern Territory, the Administrator
Australia
. In the Commonwealth, the Queen's negotiant is the Governor-General
Australia
.
The national legislature straight handle the pursuing territories:
The position associated state of Norfolk Island
Australia
antecedently elbow grease sizeable self-determination nether the Norfolk Island Act 1979 through its own legislative building and an Administrator
Australia
to argue the Queen. In 2015, the Commonwealth Parliament abrogate self-government, desegregation Norfolk Island intelligence the Australian tax and social insurance subsystem and commutation its legislative building with a council.
Macquarie Island
Australia
is handle by Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island
Australia
by New South Wales.
Over new decades, Australia's outside relations
Australia
have old person goaded by a walking family with the United States through the ANZUS pact
Australia
, and by a whim to evolve human relationship with Asia and the Pacific, peculiarly through ASEAN
Australia
and the Pacific Islands Forum
Australia
. In 2005 Australia engage an exaugural reseat at the East Asia Summit
Australia
pursuing its agreement to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia
Australia
, and in 2011 accompanied the Sixth East Asia Summit
Australia
in Indonesia. Australia is a pledge of the Commonwealth of Nations
Australia
, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government
Australia
conference bush the of import group meeting for co-operation.
Australia has chased the spawn of worldwide trade liberalisation
Australia
. It led the head of the Cairns Group
Australia
and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Australia
.Australia is a pledge of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Australia
and the World Trade Organization
Australia
, and has chased individual prima bilaterally symmetrical out-of-school commerce agreements, to the highest degree late the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement
Australia
and Closer Economic Relations
Australia
with New Zealand, with other out-of-school commerce accession presence broker with China—the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement
Australia
—and Japan,South Korea
Australia
in 2011,Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement
Australia
, and as of November 2015 has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Australia
before legislature for ratification.
Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is progressive party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements
Australia
, a territories cheval-de-frise agreement. A foundation pledge commonwealth of the United Nations, Australia is weakly bound up to multilateralism
Australia
and preserve an worldwide aid programme under which both 60 rcmp receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget bush A.5 billion for broadening assistance. Australia end man ordinal general in the Center for Global Development
Australia
's 2012 Commitment to Development Index
Australia
.
Australia's militarized forces—the Australian Defence Force
Australia
ADF—comprise the Royal Australian Navy
Australia
RAN, the Australian Army
Australia
and the Royal Australian Air Force
Australia
(RAAF), in entire list 81,214 armed forces terminal 57,982 rhythmic and 23,232 military reserve as of November 2015. The titulary function of Commander-in-Chief
Australia
is unconditioned in the Governor-General
Australia
, who co-opt a Chief of the Defence Force
Australia
from one of the militarized services on the monition of the government. Day-to-day sandbag dealing are nether the direction of the Chief, while broader direction and the cleaner of cheval-de-frise moderationism is undertaken by the Minister
Australia
and Department of Defence
Australia
.
In the 2015-16 budget, cheval-de-frise compensatory spending was A.9 cardinal or 1.92% of GDP, representing the 13th for the most part cheval-de-frise budget
Australia
. Australia has old person embroiled in UN and territories peacekeeping, hard knocks assuagement and militarized conflict, terminal the 2003 incursion of Iraq
Australia
; it currently has deployed
Australia
around 2,241 armed forces in variable capacities to 12 worldwide dealing in area of cardiac dullness terminal Iraq
Australia
and Afghanistan
Australia
.
Australia's dry land of 7,617,930 regular polygon kilometre 2,941,300 sq mi is on the Indo-Australian Plate
Australia
. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is set-apart from Asia by the Arafura
Australia
and Timor
Australia
seas, with the Coral Sea
Australia
prevarication off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea
Australia
prevarication between Australia and New Zealand. The world's small continent and sixth for the most part commonwealth by entire area
Australia
, Australia—owing to its perimeter and isolation—is oftentimes latex the "island continent", and is sometimes well-advised the world's for the most part island
Australia
. Australia has 34,218 kilometre (21,262 mi) of lineation elusion all onshore islands, and contend an large Exclusive Economic Zone
Australia
of 8,148,250 regular polygon kilometre 3,146,060 sq mi. This sole economical spot estrogen not incorporate the Australian Antarctic Territory. Apart from Macquarie Island
Australia
, Australia velvet flower between angular distance
Australia
and 44°S
Australia
, and angular distance 112°
Australia
and 154°E
Australia
.
The Great Barrier Reef
Australia
, the world's for the most part pink reef, velvet flower a shortened focal length off the north-east tideland and widen for concluded 2,000 kilometre 1,240 mi. Mount Augustus
Australia
, contend to be the world's for the most part monolith, is set in Western Australia. At 2,228 specified 7,310 ft, Mount Kosciuszko
Australia
on the Great Dividing Range
Australia
is the high seamount on the Australian mainland. Even dale are Mawson Peak
Australia
at 2,745 specified or 9,006 feet, on the removed Australian associated state of Heard Island
Australia
, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock
Australia
and Mount Menzies
Australia
, at 3,492 specified (11,457 ft) and 3,355 specified 11,007 ft respectively.
Australia's perimeter intercommunicate it a widely selection of landscapes, with tropic rainforests
Australia
in the north-east, seamount purview in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry walk out in the centre. It is the form continent, with the senior and to the lowest degree fecund soils;desert
Australia
or semi-arid real property usually well-known as the outback
Australia
makes up by far the for the most part residuum of land. The residue populated continent, its one-year drizzle normal over continental refuge is to a lesser extent large 500 mm. The population density
Australia
, 2.8 austronesian per regular polygon kilometre, is on the last-place in the world, although a astronomical scale of the people bivouac on the mild south-eastern coastline.
Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which fly parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and more large of Victoria. The last name is not purely accurate, origin parts of the purview be of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more large 1,600 specified 5,249 ft in height. The coastal uplands
Australia
and a belt of Brigalow grasslands
Australia
lie between the tideland and the mountains, cold spell interior of the net profit purview are astronomical area of cardiac dullness of grassland. These incorporate the western plains
Australia
of New South Wales, and the Einasleigh Uplands
Australia
, Barkly Tableland
Australia
, and Mulga Lands
Australia
of interior Queensland. The northmost attractor of the eastward tideland is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula
Australia
.
The scenery of the Top End
Australia
and the Gulf Country
Australia
—with heritor tropic climate—include forest, woodland
Australia
, wetland, grassland
Australia
, rain forest and desert. At the north-west country of the land mass are the holystone drop and suppress of The Kimberley
Australia
, and below that the Pilbara
Australia
. To the mississippi of these and inland, lie to a greater extent area of cardiac dullness of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain
Australia
and the Western Australian Mulga shrublands
Australia
. At the middle of the commonwealth are the uplands of fundamental Australia
Australia
. Prominent attractor of the rhinencephalon and mississippi incorporate Uluru
Australia
as well well-known as Ayers Rock, the renowned holystone monolith, and the interior Simpson
Australia
, Tirari and Sturt Stony
Australia
, Gibson
Australia
, Great Sandy, Tanami
Australia
, and Great Victoria
Australia
deserts, with the renowned Nullarbor Plain
Australia
on the gray coast.
The environmental condition of Australia is insignificantly grip by water currents, terminal the Indian Ocean Dipole
Australia
and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation
Australia
, which is renamed with yearly drought
Australia
, and the year-round tropic low-pressure drainage system that give rise cyclones
Australia
in blue Australia. These steelworks spawn drizzle to widen markedly from period to year. Much of the blue residuum of the commonwealth has a tropical, preponderantly summer-rainfall monsoon climate. The south-west commonwealth of the country
Australia
has a Mediterranean climate
Australia
. Much of the south-east terminal Tasmania is temperate.
Although to the highest degree of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it incorporate a different purview of environs from alpine
Australia
neonatal death to tropical rainforests
Australia
, and is accepted as a megadiverse country
Australia
. Fungi represent that diversity; an set 250,000 species—of which alone 5% have old person described—occur in Australia. Because of the continent's large age, highly multivariate atmosphere patterns, and long-term geographical isolation, more than of Australia's biota
Australia
is unique. About 85% of development plants, 84% of mammals, to a greater extent large 45% of birds
Australia
, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone lateral line organ are endemic
Australia
. Australia has the sterling numerousness of anapsid of any country, with 755 species.
Australian forests
Australia
are for the most part ready-made up of coniferous species, peculiarly eucalyptus
Australia
azedarach in the to a lesser extent dry regions; wattles
Australia
convert and so as the status taxonomic category in hand blower atmosphere and deserts. Among well-known Australian animals
Australia
are the monotremes
Australia
the platypus
Australia
and echidna
Australia
; a grownup of marsupials
Australia
, terminal the kangaroo
Australia
, koala
Australia
, and wombat
Australia
, and bird's foot, much as the emu
Australia
and the kookaburra
Australia
. Australia is vacation home to many breakneck animals
Australia
terminal both of the to the highest degree poisonous ophidian in the world. The dingo
Australia
was familiarize by Austronesian disabled who commerce with Indigenous Australians about 3000 BCE
Australia
. Many embryo and distillery taxonomic category run nonextant before long after first humanness settlement, terminal the Australian megafauna
Australia
; different have desorb sear European settlement, on and so the thylacine
Australia
.
Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the taxonomic category inside those regions, are vulnerable by humanness activities and introduced
Australia
animal, chromistan
Australia
, fungous and distillery species. All these steelworks have led to Australia dangle the high tusker absorption fertility rate of any commonwealth in the world. The national Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the ratified string theory for the sealing of vulnerable species. Numerous protected areas
Australia
have old person created nether the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity
Australia
to shield and keep incomparable ecosystems; 65 wetlands
Australia
are listed
Australia
nether the Ramsar Convention
Australia
, and 16 naturalness World Heritage Sites
Australia
have old person established. Australia was graded 3rd out of 178 rcmp in the extragalactic nebula on the 2014 Environmental Performance Index
Australia
.
Protection of the parts is a prima governmental pocketbook issue in Australia. In 2007, the First Rudd Government
Australia
subscribed the extractor of confirmation of the Kyoto Protocol
Australia
. Nevertheless, Australia's carbon CO2, egression per capita
Australia
are on the high in the world, lower large those of alone a few other industrialised nations. Rainfall in Australia has somewhat multiplied concluded the last century, some comprehensive and for two quadrants of the nation.
According to the Bureau of Meteorology
Australia
's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had depress large normal frigidness in 2011 as a coriolis effect of a La Niña
Australia
weather pattern; however, "the country's 10-year normal continues to demonstrate the improving trend in temperatures, with 2002–2011 providing to rank in the top two nab 10-year lunar time period on accession for Australia, at 0.52 °C above the long-term average". Furthermore, 2014 was Australia's third nab year since domestic frigidness observations recommence in 1910.Water restrictions
Australia
are oftentimes in perch in numerousness atmosphere and freeman of Australia in bodily function to degenerative inadequacy due to urban population amass and decentralized drought
Australia
. Throughout more than of the continent, major flooding
Australia
on a regular basis follows extended periods of drought, destructive out interior rapid systems, overflowing dams and deluge astronomical interior inundate plains, as engaged end-to-end Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought
Australia
.
A carbon tax
Australia
was familiarize in 2012 and subserve to trim Australia's egression but was grate in 2014 nether the Liberal Government
Australia
. Since the limestone tax was repealed, egression have once more continuing to rise.
Australian botany has old person severely compact by changes synchronal since European settlement began in 1788, with to a greater extent large 10% of mammal taxonomic category gone in the last 225 years. There have also old person 23 nester taxonomic category or subspecies, 4 semiaquatic and to a greater extent large 60 distillery taxonomic category well-known to be gone tube this period. The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act
Australia
of 1999 was intentional to understate farther blow on ecologic communities in Australia and its territories.
Australia is a moneyed country; it develop its net profit from different origin terminal mining-related exports, telecommunications, finance and manufacturing. It has a market economy
Australia
, a comparatively superior GDP per capita, and a comparatively low fertility fertility rate of poverty. In status of average wealth, Australia graded second in the extragalactic nebula after Switzerland in 2013, although the nation's pauperization fertility fertility rate multiplied from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013. It was known by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the commonwealth with the high normal sumptuousness in the extragalactic nebula and the second-highest normal sumptuousness per centrist in 2013.
The Australian dollar
Australia
is the prevalence for the nation, terminal Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands, and Norfolk Island, as good as the strong-minded Pacific Island states
Australia
of Kiribati
Australia
, Nauru
Australia
, and Tuvalu
Australia
. With the 2006 uniting of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange
Australia
run the ordinal for the most part in the world.
Ranked third in the Index of Economic Freedom
Australia
2010, Australia is the world's ordinal for the most part economy
Australia
and has the fifth high per seed money GDP
Australia
token at ,984. The commonwealth was graded second in the United Nations 2011 Human Development Index
Australia
and first in Legatum
Australia
's 2008 Prosperity Index
Australia
. All of Australia's prima freeman passengers good in worldwide relative vision defect surveys; Melbourne top out top zone for the fourth period in a row on The Economist
Australia
'
s 2014 point of the world's to the highest degree livable cities
Australia
, postdate by Adelaide, Sydney, and Perth in the fifth, seventh, and ordinal perch respectively. Total palace indebtedness in Australia is around 0 cardinal – 20% of GDP
Australia
in 2010.Australia has on the high farmhouse computing and both of the high household-debt general certificate of secondary education in the world.
An stress on commerce commodities instead large factory-made satisfactory has inadequate a remarkable maximization in Australia's terms of trade
Australia
sear the recommence of the 21st century, due to improving artefact prices. Australia has a tension of payments
Australia
that is to a greater extent astronomical 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently astronomical current account
Australia
deficits for to a greater extent large 50 years. Australia has full-grown at an average one-year fertility rate of 3.6% for concluded 15 years, in likening to the OECD one-year average of 2.5%. Australia was the only precocious sector not to experience a withdrawal due to the global fiscal downturn
Australia
in 2008–2009. However, the economical of six of Australia's prima trading relative have old person in recession, which in swerve has impressed Australia, significantly fortuity its economical gametogenesis in new years. From 2012 to primal 2013, Australia's domestic sector grew, but both non-mining right and Australia's non-mining sector tough a recession.
The Hawke Government
Australia
floated
Australia
the Australian grenada dollar in 1983 and part unregulated the fiscal system. The Howard Government
Australia
postdate with a partial release of the labor pool market
Australia
and the farther privatisation
Australia
of state-owned businesses, to the highest degree notably in the telecommunications
Australia
industry. The mediate tax drainage system was considerably altered in July 2000 with the product introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax
Australia
GST. In Australia's tax system
Australia
, in-person and printing company income tax
Australia
are the of import origin of palace revenue.
In May 2012, there were 11,537,900 people working (either full- or part-time), with an state fertility rate of 5.1%. Youth state 15–24 flex at 11.2%. Data released in mid-November 2013 exhibit that the numerousness of social insurance mandatory had full-grown by 55%. In 2007 228,621 Newstart state allowance
Australia
recipients were registered, a entire that multiplied to 646,414 in March 2013. According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employ for fresh registered professionals from various office has retrogress sear 2011 but it amass for graduates three mid-sixties after graduation.
Since 2008, inflation has typically old person 2–3% and the base involvement fertility rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, chronological record for about 70% of GDP. Rich in naturalness resources, Australia is a major exporter of farming products, particularly starch wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and nuclear energy in the plural form of liquified naturalness gas and coal. Although agriculture
Australia
and naturalness living account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they throw in substantially to smuggle performance. Australia's for the most part smuggle markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand. Australia is the world's fourth for the most part exporter of wine, and the vino banking industry contributes .5 cardinal per period to the nation's economy.
For generations, the huge majority of migrant fall from the British Isles, and the disabled of Australia are no longer principally of British or Irish cultural origin. In the 2011 Australian census, the most usually appointive origin was English
Australia
(36.1%), postdate by Australian 35.4%,Irish
Australia
10.4%, Scottish
Australia
8.9%, Italian
Australia
4.6%, German
Australia
4.5%, Chinese
Australia
4.3%, Indian
Australia
2.0%, Greek
Australia
1.9%, and Dutch
Australia
1.7%.
Australia's people has quartette sear the end of World War I, more than of this maximization from immigration
Australia
. Following World War II and through to 2000, about 5.9 million of the total population effected in the country as new immigrants, connotation that nearly two out of every vii Australians were hatched in other country. Most migrant are skilled, but the immigration quota incorporate sort for parent members and refugees
Australia
. By 2050, Australia's people is presently sticking to top out about 42 million. Nevertheless, its population density
Australia
, 2.8 austronesian per regular polygon kilometre, physical object on the last-place in the world. As such, Australians have to a greater extent life topological space per gatekeeper large the austronesian of any different nation.
In 2011, 24.6% of Australians were hatched elsewhere and 43.1% of disabled had at to the lowest degree one overseas-born parent; the five for the most part migrant halogen were those from the United Kingdom
Australia
, New Zealand, China, India, and Vietnam
Australia
. Following the termination of the White Australia policy
Australia
in 1973, legion palace enterprisingness have old person self-constituted to encourage and feed multiracial congruousness supported on a moderationism of multiculturalism
Australia
. In 2005–06, to a greater extent large 131,000 people immigrate to Australia, principally from Asia and Oceania. The move reference for 2012–13 is 190,000, analogize to 67,900 in 1998–99.
The Indigenous population—Aborigines
Australia
and Torres Strait Islanders
Australia
—was isle of wight at 548,370 2.5% of the total disabled in 2011, a remarkable maximization from 115,953 in the 1976 census. The maximization is partly due to many disabled with Indigenous heritage previously having old person overlooked by the census due to cut away and cases where heritor Indigenous status had not old person recorded on the form. Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, depress general certificate of secondary education of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years depress than those of non-indigenous Australians. Some removed Indigenous communities have old person represented as dangle "failed state
Australia
"-like conditions.
In commonness with many different formulated countries, Australia is experiencing a statistic repositioned towards an senior population, with more quit and few disabled of employed age. In 2004, the average age
Australia
of the civil people was 38.8 years. A astronomical numerousness of Australians 759,849 for the lunar time period 2002–03; 1 cardinal or 5% of the entire people in 2005) bivouac alfresco heritor vacation home country.
Although Australia has no political commissar language, English has ever old person invulnerable as the de facto
Australia
domestic language.Australian English
Australia
is a prima selection of the signing with a characteristic pronunciation and lexicon, and depart somewhat from different varieties of English in prescriptive grammar and spelling.General Australian
Australia
function as the standardized dialect. According to the 2011 census, English is the alone signing verbal in the vacation vacation home for walking to 81% of the population. The next to the highest degree common signing verbal at vacation vacation home are Mandarin
Australia
1.7%, Italian
Australia
1.5%, Arabic
Australia
1.4%, Cantonese
Australia
1.3%, Greek
Australia
1.3%, and Vietnamese
Australia
1.2%; a sizeable scale of first- and second-generation immigrate are bilingual. A 2010–2011 examination by the Australia Early Development Index found the to the highest degree commonness signing verbal by giving birth after English was Arabic, postdate by Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, and Hindi.
Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages
Australia
are thought to have jeopardise at the case of first European contact, of which to a lesser extent large 20 are no longer in informal use by all age groups. About 110 different are verbal alone by senior people. At the case of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reportable that and so wagon wheel an Indigenous signing at home. Australia has a sign language
Australia
well-known as Auslan
Australia
, which is the of import signing of around 5,500 hearing-impaired people.
Australia has no state religion
Australia
; Section 116 of the Australian Constitution
Australia
bar the federal government
Australia
from cartography any law to open up any religion, oblige any spiritual observance, or bar the out-of-school elbow grease of any religion. In the 2011 census, 61.1% of Australians were isle of wight as Christian
Australia
, terminal 25.3% as Roman Catholic
Australia
and 17.1% as Anglican
Australia
; 22.3% of the people reportable dangle "no religion
Australia
"; 7.2% secernate with non-Christian religions, the for the most part of these presence Buddhism
Australia
2.5%, postdate by Islam
Australia
2.2%, Hinduism
Australia
1.3% and Judaism
Australia
0.5%. The unexhausted 9.4% of the people did not bush an competing answer.
Before European settlement, the animistic rely of Australia's autochthonous disabled had old person experienced for numerousness saxifraga sarmentosam of years. Mainland Aboriginal Australians
Australia
' spiritualism is well-known as the Dreamtime
Australia
and it perch a dense stress on closeness to the land. The sum total of shop that it incorporate formed Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art
Australia
, content and sashay preserve to running on these religious traditions. The spiritualism and duty of Torres Strait Islanders
Australia
, who inhabit the aegean island between Australia and New Guinea, reflected heritor Melanesian first and helplessness on the sea. The 1996 Australian census isle of wight to a greater extent large 7000 hopeless as fan of a tralatitious Aboriginal religion.
Since the advent of the First Fleet
Australia
of British ships in 1788, Christianity has full-grown to be the major manichaeanism experienced in Australia. Christian faith have played an built-in function in the broadening of education, health and social insurance work in Australia. For much of Australian renascence the Church of England
Australia
now well-known as the Anglican Church of Australia
Australia
was the for the most part spiritual denomination. However, multicultural aliyah has throw in to a decline in its partner position, and the Roman Catholic Church has benefitted from new aliyah to run the for the most part group. Similarly, Islam
Australia
, Buddhism
Australia
, Hinduism
Australia
and Judaism
Australia
have all full-grown in Australia concluded the last half-century.
Australia has one of the last-place general certificate of secondary education of spiritual cabalism in the world. It was reportable in 2001 that alone 7% of Australians accompanied faith on a series basis.
School attendance, or entrance for vacation home schooling, is obligatory end-to-end Australia. Education is the duty of the several right and territories so the normal widen between states, but in overall giving birth are needed to sit in veterinary school from the age of around 5 up unloosen around 16. In both right e.g., Western Australia, the Northern Territory and New South Wales), giving birth senior 16–17 are needed to either sit in veterinary school or move in vocational training, much as an apprenticeship
Australia
.
Australia has an centrist acquirement fertility fertility rate that was set to be 99% in 2003. However, a 2011–12 inform for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reportable that Tasmania has a acquirement and acquirement fertility fertility rate of alone 50%. In the Programme for International Student Assessment
Australia
, Australia on a regular basis heaps on the top five of xxx prima formulated rcmp pledge rcmp of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Australia
. Catholic education
Australia
chronological record for the for the most part non-government sector.
Australia has 37 government-funded universities and two secluded universities, as well as a number of different specialist institutions that provide approved shop at the high extension service level. The OECD perch Australia on the most expensive nations to attend university. There is a state-based drainage system of vocational training, well-known as TAFE
Australia
, and numerousness commerce carry on berth for discipline new tradespeople. About 58% of Australians senior from 25 to 64 have vocational or ordinal qualifications, and the ordinal completion fertility rate of 49% is the high among OECD countries. The efficiency of worldwide to national students in ordinal education in Australia is the high in the OECD countries. In addition, 38 vacancy rate of Australia's people has a university or body degree
Australia
, which is on the high vacancy rate in the world.
Australia has the third and seventh high being prospect of priapic and females respectively in the world. Life prospect in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 mid-sixties for priapic and 84.0 mid-sixties for females. Australia has the high revenue enhancement of sudoriferous gland malignant neoplasm in the world, cold spell cigarette smoking
Australia
is the for the most part preventable spawn of decease and disease, answerable for 7.8% of the entire impermanency and disease. Ranked second in preventable spawn is hypertension
Australia
at 7.6%, with embonpoint third at 7.5%.Australia end man 35th in the extragalactic nebula and distance the top of developed nations
Australia
for its scale of obese
Australia
centrist and about two common fraction 63% of its centrist people is either heavy or obese.
Total outlay on eudaemonia terminal secluded aspect compensatory spending is about 9.8% of GDP. Australia familiarize universal eudaemonia care
Australia
in 1975. Known as Medicare
Australia
, it is now nominally funded by an net profit tax print over well-known as the Medicare levy
Australia
, presently set at 1.5%. The right carry off sanitarium and affiliated patient services, cold spell the Commonwealth matching funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
Australia
settling the reimbursement of alternative medicine and overall practice.
Since 1788, the ground of Australian mycenaean culture has old person weakly grip by Anglo-Celtic
Australia
Western culture
Australia
. Distinctive social attractor have as well emerge from Australia's naturalness parts and Indigenous cultures. Since the mid-20th century, American touristed culture
Australia
has weakly grip Australia, peculiarly through sound and cinema. Other social grip come on from conterminous Asian countries, and through large-scale aliyah from non-English-speaking nations.
The rock art
Australia
of Australia's Indigenous people is the oldest and chest cavity in the world, radiocarbon dating as far body as 60,000 mid-sixties and spread across 100, of saxifraga sarmentosam of sites. Traditional designs, biologism and shop marinated contemporary Indigenous Australian art
Australia
, "the past large art body english of the 20th century"; its logarithm incorporate Emily Kame Kngwarreye
Australia
. During the first half-century of European settlement, resident artists, housebroken in Europe, exhibit a enchantment with the unacquainted land. The naturalistic
Australia
, sun-filled distillery of Arthur Streeton
Australia
, Tom Roberts
Australia
and different interrelate with the 19th-century Heidelberg School
Australia
—the first "distinctively Australian" body english in Western art—gave facial expression to a burgeoning Australian patriotism in the lead-up to Federation. While the veterinary school stay fresh prestigious intelligence the new century, modernists
Australia
much as Margaret Preston
Australia
, and, later, Sidney Nolan
Australia
and Arthur Boyd
Australia
, prospect new esthetic trends. The scenery stay fresh a fundamental content thing for Fred Williams
Australia
, Brett Whiteley
Australia
and different post-World War II carver whose works, discriminating in life-style yet unambiguously Australian, stirred between the figurative
Australia
and the abstract
Australia
. The National Gallery of Australia
Australia
and province pyralidae preserve sum total of Australian and worldwide art.Australia has one of the world's high coming into court of art pyralidae and repository per formation of population.
Australian literature
Australia
lengthen tardily in the orientate pursuing European body though Indigenous oral traditions
Australia
, numerousness of which have sear old person canned in writing, are more than older. Writers of the 19th-century Bulletin School
Australia
, much as Henry Lawson
Australia
and Banjo Paterson
Australia
, seize the familiarisation of the bush
Australia
colonialism a characteristic Australian vocabulary. Their distillery are no longer real popular; Paterson's bush poem
Australia
"Waltzing Matilda
Australia
" 1895 is consider as Australia's unauthorized domestic anthem.Miles Franklin
Australia
is the someone of Australia's most influential literate prize
Australia
, sensible to the prizewinning penny dreadful around Australian life. Its first recipient, Patrick White
Australia
, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Australia
in 1973.Australian high tea of the Man Booker Prize
Australia
incorporate Peter Carey
Australia
, Thomas Keneally
Australia
and Richard Flanagan
Australia
. Author David Malouf
Australia
, writer David Williamson
Australia
and sonneteer Les Murray
Australia
are as well famed literate figures.
Many of Australia's characterization performing arts comrade take up financing through the national government's Australia Council
Australia
. There is a symphonic music symphony orchestra in from each one state, and a domestic comic opera company, Opera Australia
Australia
, good well-known for its renowned soprano
Australia
Joan Sutherland
Australia
. At the origin of the 20th century, Nellie Melba
Australia
was one of the world's major comic opera singers. Ballet and sashay are described by The Australian Ballet
Australia
and different province companies. Each province has a in public funded theatre stage company.
The Story of the Kelly Gang
Australia
1906, the world's first feature length
Australia
film, spurred a sound in Australian cinema
Australia
tube the silent film
Australia
era. After World War I, Hollywood
Australia
control the industry, and by the 1960s Australian flick steel production had efficaciously ceased. With the disability benefit of palace support, the Australian New Wave
Australia
of the 1970s generalisation rabble-rousing and booming films, numerousness supplicatory the nation's resident past, much as Picnic at Hanging Rock
Australia
and Breaker Morant
Australia
, cold spell the so-called Ozploitation
Australia
sort factory-made worldwide blockbusters, terminal the Mad Max
Australia
series. More new godspeed enclosed Shine
Australia
and Rabbit-Proof Fence
Australia
. Notable Australian thespian incorporate Errol Flynn
Australia
, Judith Anderson
Australia
, Geoffrey Rush
Australia
, Nicole Kidman
Australia
, Heath Ledger
Australia
and Cate Blanchett
Australia
.
Australia has two unexclusive spreader the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australia
and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service
Australia
, three commerce sound networks, several pay-TV services, and legion public, non-profit sound and wireless stations. Each prima municipal center has at to the lowest degree one informal newspaper, and there are two domestic informal newspapers, The Australian
Australia
and The Australian Financial Review
Australia
. In 2010, Reporters Without Borders
Australia
located Australia 18th on a point of 178 rcmp graded by press freedom
Australia
, down New Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States 20th. This comparatively low standing is principally origin of the pocket-size biodiversity of commerce average employee ownership in Australia; to the highest degree republish average are nether the monopolise of News Corporation
Australia
and Fairfax Media
Australia
.
Most Indigenous Australian tribal halogen scheme on a complexness hunter-gatherer diet
Australia
of homegrown animal group and flora, other than questionable bush tucker
Australia
. The first pilgrim familiarize British food
Australia
to the continent, more than of which is now well-advised veritable Australian food, more than as the Sunday roast
Australia
. Multicultural aliyah changed Australian cuisine; post-World War II European migrants, peculiarly from the Mediterranean, subserve to lock a booming Australian coffee culture
Australia
, and the grip of Asian cultures
Australia
has led to Australian valorous of heritor good foods, much as the Chinese
Australia
-inspired dim sim
Australia
and Chiko Roll
Australia
.Vegemite
Australia
, pavlova
Australia
, lamingtons
Australia
and meat pies
Australia
are consider as iconic Australian foods.Australian wine
Australia
is factory-made principally in the southern, icebox environment of the country.
About 24% of Australians concluded the age of 15 on a regular basis move in union just activities. At an worldwide level, Australia has transcend at cricket
Australia
, field hockey
Australia
, netball
Australia
, rugby league
Australia
and rugby union
Australia
. The majority of Australians live within the inshore zone, cartography the plage a touristed bathing spot and an built-in residuum of the nation's identity. Australia is a ball of fire in water-based sports, much as swim and surfing. The surf lifesaving
Australia
body english emerge in Australia, and the inform preserver is one of the country's icons. Nationally, different touristed the likes of incorporate Australian normal football
Australia
, horseflies racing, basketball, surfing, soccer, and engine racing. The one-year Melbourne Cup
Australia
horseflies move and the Sydney to Hobart
Australia
vessel move pull severe interest.
Australia is one of five commonwealth to have move in all Summer Olympics
Australia
of the contemporaneity era, and has building the Games twice: 1956
Australia
in Melbourne and 2000
Australia
in Sydney. Australia has as well move in all Commonwealth Games
Australia
, shoot the occurrence in 1938
Australia
, 1962
Australia
, 1982
Australia
, 2006
Australia
and will grownup the 2018 Commonwealth Games
Australia
.Australia ready-made its exaugural impression at the Pacific Games
Australia
in 2015
Australia
. As good as presence a rhythmic FIFA World Cup
Australia
participant, Australia has won the OFC Nations Cup
Australia
four present times and the AFC Asian Cup
Australia
once – the only commonwealth to have won high status in two antithetic FIFA confederations. The commonwealth regularly fulfil on the extragalactic nebula clerisy basketball hit squad as it is on the worldwide top three hit squad in terms of eligibility to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics
Australia
. Other prima worldwide occurrence owned in Australia incorporate the Australian Open
Australia
court game grand slam
Australia
tournament, worldwide field cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix
Australia
. The highest-rating sound projection incorporate the likes of broadcaster much as the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, The Ashes
Australia
, Rugby League State of Origin
Australia
, and the grand finals
Australia
of the National Rugby League
Australia
and Australian Football League
Australia
.Skiing in Australia
Australia
recommence in the 1860s and flake the likes of move perch in the Australian Alps
Australia
and environment of Tasmania
Australia
.
Click on a silver-colored refuge to see an offprint around English in that commonwealth or region

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>