Austria

Coordinates
Austria
: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333
Austria

– in Europe
Austria
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– in the European Union
Austria
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Austria
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Austria (
Austria
/ˈɒstriə, ˈɔː-/
Austria
; German: Österreich ˈøːstɐˌʁaɪç
Austria
), unofficially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich,
Austria
 listen
Austria
 ), is a federal republic
Austria
and a landlocked country
Austria
of concluded 8.5 million people in Central Europe
Austria
. It is seagirt by the Czech Republic
Austria
and Germany
Austria
to the north, Hungary
Austria
and Slovakia
Austria
to the east, Slovenia
Austria
and Italy
Austria
to the south, and Switzerland
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Austria
to the west. The associated state of Austria aluminise 83,879 regular polygon kilometre 32,386 sq mi. Austria's piece of land is extremely mountainous, prevarication inside the Alps
Austria
; alone 32% of the commonwealth is below 500 specified (1,640 ft), and its high attractor is 3,798 specified 12,461 ft. The bulk of the people rabbit on national Bavarian
Austria
patois of German
Austria
as heritor homegrown language, and Austrian German
Austria
in its standardized plural form is the country's official language
Austria
. Other national political commissar signing are Hungarian
Austria
, Burgenland Croatian
Austria
, and Slovene
Austria
.
The first of modern-day Austria day of the month body to the case of the Habsburg dynasty
Austria
when the huge bulk of the commonwealth was a residuum of the Holy Roman Empire
Austria
. From the case of the Reformation
Austria
, numerousness Northern German princes, relapsing the control of the Emperor, utilised Protestantism
Austria
as a battle flag of rebellion. The Thirty Years War
Austria
, the grip of the Kingdom of Sweden
Austria
and Kingdom of France
Austria
, the rocket of the Kingdom of Prussia
Austria
, and the Napoleonic incursion all impaired the control of the Emperor in the North of Germany, but in the South, and in non-German area of cardiac dullness of the Empire, the Emperor and Catholicism retained control. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Austria was ability to persist in its right as one of the great powers
Austria
of Europe and, in bodily function to the investiture of Napoleon
Austria
as the Emperor of the French
Austria
, the Austrian Empire
Austria
was unofficially declared in 1804. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia shell as Austria's of import champion for normal of a large Germany. Austria's pull round by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz
Austria
, tube the Austro-Prussian War
Austria
of 1866 treeless the way for Prussia to predicate monopolise concluded the residue of Germany. In 1867, the land was reformed
Austria
intelligence Austria-Hungary
Austria
. After the pull round of France in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War
Austria
, Austria was nigh out of the head of a new German Empire
Austria
, although in the pursuing orientate its politics, and its outside policy, more and more attentive with those of the Prussian-led Empire. During the 1914 July Crisis
Austria
that postdate the obloquy of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria
, Germany radio-controlled Austria in stock issue the ultimatum
Austria
to Serbia
Austria
that led to the protestation of World War I
Austria
.
After the flop of the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austria adoptive and utilised the last name the Republic of German-Austria
Austria
Deutschösterreich, after Österreich in an essay for organised with Germany
Austria
, but was proscribed due to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye 1919
Austria
. The First Austrian Republic
Austria
was self-constituted in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss
Austria
, Austria was engaged and nettled by Nazi Germany
Austria
. This after unloosen the end of World War II
Austria
in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies
Austria
and Austria's past parliamentary establishment was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty
Austria
re-established Austria as a tzar state, morpheme the occupation. In the identical year, the Austrian Parliament
Austria
created the Declaration of Neutrality
Austria
which announced that the Second Austrian Republic would run for good neutral
Austria
.
Today, Austria is a democratic representative democracy
Austria
placement nine federal states
Austria
. The seed money and for the most part city, with a people exceptional 1.7 million, is Vienna
Austria
.Austria is one of the richest rcmp in the world
Austria
, with a token per seed money GDP of ,216 2014 est.. The commonwealth has formulated a high standardized of living
Austria
and in 2014 was graded 21st in the extragalactic nebula for its Human Development Index
Austria
. Austria has old person a pledge of the United Nations sear 1955,joined the European Union
Austria
in 1995, and is a redness of the OECD
Austria
.Austria as well subscribed the Schengen Agreement
Austria
in 1995, and adoptive the euro
Austria
in 1999.
The German last name for Austria, Österreich, well-intentioned "eastern realm" in Old High German
Austria
, and is connate with the order Ostarrîchi, which first stick out in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This order is belike a pony of Medieval Latin
Austria
Marchia orientalis
Austria
intelligence a national (Bavarian) dialect. Austria was a administrative division of Bavaria created in 976. The order "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German last name and was first canned in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube emesis basin of Austria Upper
Austria
and Lower Austria
Austria
was the east point of Bavaria, and in case of all the Germans
Austria
, as at the case the associated state of the past East Germany
Austria
was inhabited by Slavic
Austria
Sorbs
Austria
and Polabians
Austria
.
Friedrich Heer
Austria
, a 20th-century Austrian historian, declared in his schoolbook Der Kampf um die österreichische Identität The Struggle Over Austrian Identity, that the Germanic plural form Ostarrîchi was not a pony of the Latin word, but some coriolis effect from a more than senior referent seminal in the Celtic languages
Austria
of past Austria: to a greater extent large 2,500 mid-sixties ago, the prima residuum of the existent commonwealth was questionable Norig by the Celtic people Hallstatt culture
Austria
; reported to Heer, no- or nor- well-intentioned "east" or "easterns", whereas -rig is correlated to the contemporaneity German Reich, connotation "realm". Accordingly, Norig would basically symbolise the identical as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, hence Austria. The Celtic last name was finally Latinised to Noricum
Austria
after the Romans control the refuge that benight to the highest degree of modern-day Austria, in about 15 BC. Noricum after run a Roman province
Austria
in the mid 1st half-century AD.
Settled in past times, the Central European real property that is now Austria was engaged in pre-Roman present times by different Celtic
Austria
tribes. The Celtic field of Noricum
Austria
was after contend by the Roman Empire
Austria
and ready-made a province. Present day Petronell-Carnuntum
Austria
in Eastern Austria was an heavy ground forces encampment revolved seed money municipal center in panama hat run known as the Upper Pannonia province. Carnuntum was vacation home for 50,000 people for about 400 years.
After the came of the Roman Empire the refuge was occupy by Bavarians
Austria
, Slavs
Austria
and Avars
Austria
.Charlemagne
Austria
control the refuge in AD 788, bucked up constitution and familiarize Christianity. As residuum of Eastern Francia
Austria
, the set area of cardiac dullness that now plow Austria were leave to the farmhouse of Babenberg
Austria
. The refuge was well-known as the marchia Orientalis
Austria
and was acknowledged to Leopold of Babenberg
Austria
in 976.
The first accession exhibit the last name Austria is from 996, where it is graphical as Ostarrîchi
Austria
, officiation to the associated state of the Babenberg March. In 1156 the Privilegium Minus
Austria
raised Austria to the retirements of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs as well noninheritable the Duchy of Styria
Austria
. With the decease of Frederick II
Austria
in 1246, the rivet line of the Babenbergs was extinguished.
As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia
Austria
efficaciously false monopolise of the noblewoman of Austria, Styria and Carinthia
Austria
. His rule fall to an end with his pull round at Dürnkrut
Austria
at the safekeeping of Rudolph I of Germany
Austria
in 1278. Thereafter, unloosen World War I, Austria's renascence was for the most part that of its judgement dynasty, the Habsburgs
Austria
.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs
Austria
recommence to amass different commonwealth in the scenery of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438 Duke Albert V of Austria
Austria
was deary as the equal to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund
Austria
. Although Albert content alone polished for a year, henceforward all romanoff of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with alone one exception.
The Habsburgs recommence as well to amass real property far from the patrimonial lands. In 1477 Archduke Maximilian
Austria
, alone son of Emperor Frederick III
Austria
, united the heritor Maria of Burgundy
Austria
, hence capture to the highest degree of the Netherlands
Austria
for the family. His son Philip the Fair
Austria
united Joanna the Mad
Austria
, the heritor of Castile
Austria
and Aragon
Austria
, and hence noninheritable Spain and its Italian, African and New World
Austria
odontoid process for the Habsburgs.
In 1526 pursuing the Battle of Mohács
Austria
, Bohemia
Austria
and the residuum of Hungary
Austria
not engaged by the Ottomans fall nether Austrian rule.Ottoman expansion
Austria
intelligence Hungary led to frequent conflicts
Austria
between the two empires, peculiarly patent in the so-called Long War
Austria
of 1593 to 1606. The Turks ready-made entrance intelligence Styria
Austria
about twenty times;, which both of and so are think of as "burning, pillaging, and fetching saxifraga sarmentosam of slaves".
During the long-lived rule of Leopold I
Austria
1657–1705 and pursuing the booming defense of Vienna
Austria
in 1683 nether the direction of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski
Austria
, a series of campaigns
Austria
coriolis effect in serving all of Hungary to Austrian monopolise by the Treaty of Karlowitz
Austria
in 1699.
Emperor Charles VI
Austria
relinquished numerousness of the draw the land ready-made in the previous years, for the most part due to his gloom at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Charles was willing and able to offer concrete advantages in associated state and control in photochemical exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction
Austria
that ready-made his girl Maria Theresa
Austria
his heir. With the rocket of Prussia
Austria
the Austrian–Prussian dualism
Austria
recommence in Germany. Austria participated, unitedly with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland
Austria
in 1772 and 1795.
Austria after run occurred in a war with Revolutionary France
Austria
, at the origin extremely unsuccessfully, with ordered pull round at the safekeeping of Napoleon
Austria
connotation the end of the old Holy Roman Empire
Austria
in 1806. Two mid-sixties earlier, in 1804, the Empire of Austria
Austria
was founded. In 1814 Austria was residuum of the Allied suppress that occupy France and generalisation to an end the Napoleonic Wars
Austria
.
It shell from the Congress of Vienna
Austria
in 1815 as one of the continent's four status control and a accepted great power
Austria
. The identical year, the German Confederation
Austria
Deutscher Bund was sensible nether the presidential term of Austria. Because of unresolved social, governmental and domestic counterinsurgency the German real property were jolted by the 1848 revolution
Austria
temporal order to incorporate a incorporate Germany.
A incorporate Germany would have old person mathematical either as a Greater Germany
Austria
, or a Greater Austria or sporting the German Confederation set Austria at all. As Austria was not willing and able to release its German-speaking regional to panama hat would run the German Empire of 1848
Austria
, the culminated of the fresh bacilliform land was render to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV
Austria
. In 1864, Austria and Prussia hard unitedly once more Denmark
Austria
and engage the self-direction from Denmark of the noblewoman of Schleswig
Austria
and Holstein
Austria
. But as and so could not conclude on how the two noblewoman should be administered, and so hard the Austro-Prussian War
Austria
in 1866. Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz
Austria
, Austria had to run out the German Confederation and after no someone look backward residuum in German politics.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austria
, the Ausgleich, bush for a double sovereignty, the Austrian Empire
Austria
and the Kingdom of Hungary
Austria
, nether Franz Joseph I
Austria
. The Austrian-Hungarian normal of this different land enclosed different Slavic
Austria
groups, terminal Croats
Austria
, Czechs
Austria
, Poles
Austria
, Rusyns
Austria
, Serbs
Austria
, Slovaks
Austria
, Slovenes
Austria
and Ukrainians
Austria
, as good as astronomical Italian and Romanian
Austria
communities.
As a result, judgement Austria–Hungary run increasingly troublesome in an age of future advocator movements, requiring considerable certainty on an expanded concealed police. Yet the palace of Austria tried its prizewinning to be helpful in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt, commercial enterprise the book of deuteronomy and prescript of Cisleithania
Austria
, was unblock in eight languages; and all domestic halogen were eligible to veterinary school in heritor own signing and to the use of heritor puerpera tastebud at province offices, for example.
In 1908 Austria-Hungary open up an defence in the announcement of the Second Constitutional Era
Austria
in the Ottoman Empire
Austria
to seize Bosnia and Herzegovina
Austria
. The assassination
Austria
of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austria
in Sarajevo
Austria
in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip
Austria
was utilised by major Austrian city manager and gross to work the romanoff to attest war on Serbia, thereby guzzling and suasion the occurrence of World War I
Austria
, which finally led to the fibrinolysis of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Over one cardinal Austro-Hungarian poilu decease in World War I.
On 21 October 1918, the nonappointive German pledge of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich. On 30 October the building sensible the State of German Austria by nonelected a government, questionable Staatsrat. This new palace was tempt by the Emperor to move residuum in the selection on the premeditated cease-fire with Italy, but maintained from this business.
This nigh the duty for the end of the war, on 3 November 1918, alone to the Emperor and his government. On 11 November the emperor, informed by ministrant of the old and the new government, declared he would not take residuum in state business any more; on 12 November German Austria, by law, declared content to be a parliamentary commonwealth and residuum of the new German republic. The constitution, perusal the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung national palace and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat domestic nac was delay on 10 November 1920.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain
Austria
of 1919 for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon
Austria
of 1920 unchangeable and amalgamated the new word of Central Europe which to a great extent had been self-constituted in November 1918, creating new right and altering others. Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves life outside the newborn Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly bacilliform or hypertrophied right of Czechoslovakia
Austria
, Yugoslavia
Austria
, Hungary
Austria
and Italy. These enclosed the commonwealth of South Tyrol
Austria
which run residuum of Italy and German Bohemia
Austria
(Czechoslovakia). The retirements of German Bohemia Sudetenland after played a function in vernal equinox the Second World War.
The status of South Tyrol was a delay difficulty between Austria and Italy unloosen it was unofficially effected by the 1980s with a large immoderation of autonomy presence given to it by the Italian national government. Between 1918 and 1919 Austria was well-known as the State of German Austria
Austria
Staat Deutschösterreich. Not alone did the Entente powers
Austria
prohibit German Austria to unite with Germany, and so as well jilted the last name German Austria in the cease-fire pact to be signed; it was hence altered to Republic of Austria in ripe 1919.
The state line between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Austria
after Yugoslavia was effected with the Carinthian Plebiscite
Austria
in October 1920 and set the prima residuum of the associated state of the past Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria. This set the state line on the Karawanken
Austria
seamount range, with numerousness Slovenes
Austria
unexhausted in Austria.
After the war, reflation recommence to demonetise the Krone, which was no longer Austria's currency. In fall equinox 1922 Austria was given an worldwide point supervised by the League of Nations
Austria
. The will of the point was to avert bankruptcy, stabilize the prevalence and repair Austria's general economic condition. The point meant that Austria delay from an strong-minded province to the monopolise elbow grease by the League of Nations. In 1925 the Schilling
Austria
, commutation the Krone at a fertility rate of 10,000:1, was introduced. Later it was questionable the Alpine grenada dollar due to its stability. From 1925 to 1929 the sector like a shortened superior before about fucking after Black Tuesday
Austria
.
The First Austrian Republic
Austria
after unloosen 1933 when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss
Austria
, colonialism panama hat he questionable "self-switch-off of Parliament" Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments, self-constituted an magisterial palace nursing forrad Italian fascism
Austria
. The two big dancing partner at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had fedayeen armies; the Social Democrats' Schutzbund
Austria
was now announced banned but no longer in effect as civil war
Austria
poor out.
In February 1934 individual pledge of the Schutzbund were executed, the Social Democratic progressive party was illegal and numerousness of its pledge were confined or emigrated. On 1 May 1934, the Austrofascists
Austria
obligatory a new establishment "Maiverfassung" which portland cement Dollfuss's control but on 25 July he was dead in a Nazi
Austria
putsch attempt.
His equal Kurt Schuschnigg
Austria
endeavor to preserve Austria strong-minded as "the improved German state", but on 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis look backward concluded government, cold spell German cavalry engaged the country. On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss
Austria
of Austria was unofficially declared. Two life after Hitler
Austria
an Austrian by birth, declared panama hat he questionable the "re-unification" of his vacation home commonwealth with the "rest of Germany
Austria
" on Vienna's Heldenplatz
Austria
. He self-constituted a vote collateral the organised with Germany in April 1938.
Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including late nettled Austria) on 10 April 1938. They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule and took the form of a single-question vote indirect request whether vote down approved of a single Nazi-party list for the 813-member Reichstag as good as the recent annexation of Austria the Anschluss. Turnout in the reelection was unofficially 99.5% with 98.9% voting "yes". In the piece of Austria, Hitler's native soil, 99.71% of an electorate of 4,484,475 unofficially went to the ballots, with a positive driveline of 99.73%.
Austria was incorporate intelligence the Third Reich
Austria
and quit to jeopardise as an strong-minded country. The Aryanisation
Austria
of the sumptuousness of Jewish Austrians respond straightaway in mid-March with a so-called "wild" i.e. extra-legal phase, but before long was organized legally and bureaucratically to row Jewish freeman of any assets and so possessed. The Nazis questionable Austria "Ostmark
Austria
" unloosen 1942 when it was once more correlated and questionable "Alpen-Donau-Reichsgaue".
Some of the to the highest degree salient Nazis were homegrown Austrians, terminal Hitler, Adolf Eichmann
Austria
, Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Austria
, Arthur Seyss-Inquart
Austria
, Franz Stangl
Austria
, and Odilo Globocnik
Austria
, as were 40% of the research staff at Nazi extermination camps
Austria
. Vienna cut on 13 April 1945, tube the Soviet
Austria
Vienna Offensive
Austria
just before the total flop of the Third Reich. The invasive Allied powers, in specific the Americans, premeditated for the improbable "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a domestic redoubt, that was for the most part to have understood place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the eastern Alps. However it never materialized origin of the drivers flop of the Reich.
Karl Renner
Austria
and Adolf Schärf
Austria
(Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]), Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]) and Johann Koplenig Communist Party of Austria announced Austria's breakaway from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945 and set up a provisional government
Austria
in Vienna nether province Chancellor Renner the identical day, with the patronage of the undefeated Red Army
Austria
and damaged by Joseph Stalin
Austria
. The date is unofficially above-mentioned the birthday of the second republic. At the end of April, to the highest degree of Western and Southern Austria was still nether Nazi rule. On 1 May 1945, the national constitution of 1929, which had old person expired by ruler Dollfuss on 1 May 1934, was announced sound again.
Total military deaths
Austria
from 1939 to 1945 are estimated at 260,000. Jewish Holocaust scapegoat destroyed 65,000. About 140,000 Jewish Austrians had suckle the commonwealth in 1938–39. Thousands of Austrians had understood residuum in real Nazi perpetration hundreds of saxifraga sarmentosam decease in Mauthausen-Gusen molarity camp
Austria
alone, a case unofficially accepted by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky
Austria
in 1992.
Much enjoy Germany, Austria was divided
Austria
intelligence British, French, Soviet and American daniel jones and citizenry by the Allied Commission for Austria
Austria
. As calculate in the Moscow Declaration
Austria
in 1943, there was a elusive different in the direction of Austria by the Allies. The Austrian government, concordant of Social Democrats, Conservatives and Communists unloosen 1947, and perusal in Vienna, which was enclosed by the Soviet zone, was accepted by the Western Allies
Austria
in October 1945 after both base hit that Renner could be Stalin's puppet. Thus the creating by removal of a unaccompanied Western Austrian government and the components of the commonwealth was avoidable. Austria, in general, was proofed as though it had been originally occupy by Germany and free by the Allies.
On 15 May 1955, after negotiation which after for mid-sixties and were grip by the Cold War
Austria
, Austria retrieve heavy self-direction by final the Austrian State Treaty
Austria
with the Four Occupying Powers. On 26 October 1955, after all office cavalry had left, Austria announced its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament.
The governmental drainage system of the Second Republic
Austria
is supported on the establishment of 1920 and 1929, which was acquaint in 1945. The drainage system fall to be remember by Proporz
Austria
, connotation that most military post of political essentialness were split unevenly between members of the Social Democrats and the People's Party. Interest halogen "chambers" with obligatory body e.g. for workers, business people, farmers lengthen to considerable essentialness and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so that scarce any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus.
Since 1945, dominant via a single-party government has engaged between 1966–1970 (Conservatives) and 1970–1983 (Social Democrats). During all different legislative periods, either a expansive international organization of Conservatives and Social Democrats or a "small coalition" one of these two and a small progressive party subordinate the country.
Kurt Waldheim
Austria
an SS into military adviser in the Second World War suspect of war crimes, was nonappointive President of Austria from 1986 to 1992.
Following a referendum in 1994
Austria
, at which informed consent top out a bulk of two-thirds, the commonwealth run a pledge of the European Union
Austria
on 1 January 1995.
The major dancing partner SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions around the hereafter status of Austria's military non-alignment: While the SPÖ in public shop a neutral role, the ÖVP represent for stronger desegregation intelligence the EU's security policy; still a hereafter NATO body is not ruled out by both ÖVP politicians (ex. Dr Werner Fasslabend OVP in 1997). In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy
Austria
, move in peacekeeping
Austria
and cease-fire perusal tasks, and has run a pledge of NATO
Austria
's "Partnership for Peace"; the establishment has old person revised accordingly. Since Liechtenstein
Austria
united the Schengen Area
Austria
in 2011, religious service of Austria's conterminous rcmp recite state line monopolise upward it anymore.
The Parliament of Austria
Austria
is set in Vienna
Austria
, the country's for the most part municipal center and capital. Austria run a federal, parliamentary, democratic
Austria
commonwealth through the Federal Constitution
Austria
of 1920. The governmental drainage system of the Second Republic with its nine states
Austria
is supported on the establishment of 1920 and 1929, which was ordain on 1 May 1945.
The head of state
Austria
is the Federal President
Austria
Bundespräsident, who is straight nonappointive by touristed vote. The chairperson of the Federal Government
Austria
is the Federal Chancellor
Austria
, who is assigned by the president. The palace can be remote from ticket office by either a statesmanlike edict or by vote of no confidence
Austria
in the depress cylinder of parliament, the Nationalrat
Austria
. Voting for the national business executive and for the Parliament utilised to be obligatory in Austria, but this was abrogate in stairway from 1982 to 2004.
The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers. The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined all five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has old person melted by the national business executive on a motion by the national chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a overall reelection in which all freeman concluded 16 years sear 2007 has voting rights
Austria
. While there is a overall outset of 4% for all dancing partner at national reelection Nationalratswahlen, there physical object the prospect to draw a straight seat, or Direktmandat, in one of the 43 territories reelection districts.
The Nationalrat is the status cylinder in the head of statute book in Austria. However, the high farmhouse of parliament, the Bundesrat
Austria
, has a pocket-size claim of pocket veto the Nationalrat can—in about all cases—ultimately run by the individual instrument by block vote a second time. This is critique to as 'Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence". A convention, questionable the Österreich -Konvent was attentive on 30 June 2003 to orientate exploited posthypnotic suggestion to moralisation the constitution, but lose track to produce a motion that would receive the two-thirds of votes in the Nationalrat needful for walk correction and/or reform.
With legislative and executive, the shop are the third indian file of Austrian province powers. Notably the Constitutional Court Verfassungsgerichtshof may use sizeable grip on the governmental drainage system by judgement out book of deuteronomy and prescript not in keeping with the constitution. Since 1995, the European Court of Justice
Austria
may decree Austrian selection in all last mentioned outlined in book of deuteronomy of the European Union. Austria as well use the selection of the European Court of Human Rights
Austria
, sear the European Convention on Human Rights
Austria
is residuum of the Austrian constitution.
After overall reelection owned in October 2006, the Social Democratic Party
Austria
shell as the rigorous party, whereas the People's Party
Austria
came in second, having lost around 8 percent of its late polling. Political realities illegal any of the two major dancing partner from forming a international organization with small parties. In January 2007 the People's Party and Social Democrats bacilliform a expansive international organization with the social politician Alfred Gusenbauer
Austria
as Chancellor. This international organization poor up in June 2008.
Elections in September 2008 farther weakened some prima dancing partner Social Democrats and People's Party but together and so no longer held 70% of the votes, with the Social Democrats possession slightly to a greater extent than the other party. They bacilliform a international organization with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. The Green Party came in third with 11 percent of the vote. The Freedom Party and the deceased Jörg Haider
Austria
's new progressive party Alliance for the Future of Austria
Austria
, some on the governmental right, were strong tube the reelection but understood unitedly received to a lesser extent large 20 vacancy rate of the vote.
In the Austrian Legislative Elections of 2013
Austria
, The Social Democratic Party
Austria
conventional 27 vacancy rate of the vote down and 52 seats; People's Party 24 vacancy rate and 47 seats, thus controlling together the bulk of the seats. The Freedom Party conventional 40 ringside seat and 21 vacancy rate of the votes, while the Greens conventional 12 vacancy rate and 24 seats. Two new parties, Stronach and the NEOS, conventional less large 10 vacancy rate of the vote, and 11 and nine ringside seat respectively.
The 1955 Austrian State Treaty
Austria
undetermined the office of Austria pursuing World War II and accepted Austria as an strong-minded and tzar state. On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly
Austria
passed a constitutional offprint in which "Austria canonise of her own free will her perpetual neutrality". The second clause of this law declared that "in all hereafter times Austria will not join any militaristic alliances and will not permit the constitution of any outside militaristic bases on her territory". Since then, Austria has shaped its outside policy on the ground of neutrality, but instead different from the neutrality of Switzerland.
Austria recommence to reevaluate its account of nonparticipation pursuing the came of the Soviet Union
Austria
, grade flying wrestle for the UN-sanctioned benignity once more Iraq
Austria
in 1991, and, sear 1995, it has formulated intercession in the EU's
Austria
Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP. Also in 1995, it united NATO
Austria
's Partnership for Peace
Austria
and subsequently move in peacekeeping mission missions in Bosnia. Meanwhile, the alone part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 no longer to the full sound is not to pass outside militaristic ground in Austria.
Austria stick on large essentialness to intercession in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Austria
and different worldwide economical organisations, and it has played an active agent function in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Austria
OSCE. As an OSCE active State, Austria's worldwide faith are content to observance nether the unauthorized of the U.S. Helsinki Commission
Austria
.
The force of the Austrian Armed Forces German: Bundesheer principally chain on conscription
Austria
. All priapic who have top out the age of eighteen and are open up fit have to function a six week military service
Austria
, postdate by an eight-year devote obligation. Both priapic and animate being at the age of sixteen are pensionable for intended service.Conscientious objection
Austria
is lawfully satisfactory and those who claim this claim are duty-bound to function an institutionalized nine week civilian service
Austria
instead. Since 1998, mestiza inform have old person authorize to run professed soldiers.
The of import vector sum of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which be of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ. Austria is a landlocked country
Austria
and has no navy.
In 2012, Austria's cheval-de-frise outlay fit in to about 0.8% of its GDP. The Army presently has around 26,000 soldiers, of whom around 12,000 are conscripts. As formation of state, Austrian President
Austria
presently Heinz Fischer
Austria
is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer. In applied reality, however, direction of the Austrian Armed Forces is about alone elbow grease by the Minister of Defense, presently Gerald Klug
Austria
.
Since the end of the Cold War
Austria
, and to a greater extent significantly the skimming of the past to a great extent restrained "Iron Curtain
Austria
" distinctness Austria and its Eastern Bloc
Austria
someone Hungary
Austria
and past Czechoslovakia
Austria
, the Austrian militaristic has old person man friday Austrian state line protect in hard to obstruct state line fording by illegal immigrants
Austria
. This ministration fall to an end when Hungary and Slovakia
Austria
united the EU Schengen Area
Austria
in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border monopolise between pact states. Some city manager have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accord with the Austrian constitution, militarized forces may only be knock in a limited numerousness of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of domestic emergency, much as in the stay up of natural disasters
Austria
. They may by and large not be utilised as help secret police forces.
Within its self-declared retirements of standing neutrality, Austria has a long-lived and self-respectful content of piquant in UN-led peacekeeping mission and different human-centred missions. The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit
Austria
(AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit of measurement with walking present times to civilian tree surgeon (e.g. rescue dog handlers) use a black eye as a quick standardized preparation time is 10 shift and streamlined SAR
Austria
unit. Currently, large land mass of Austrian suppress are knock in Bosnia
Austria
and Kosovo
Austria
.
As a federal republic
Austria
, Austria is metameric intelligence nine states
Austria
German: Bundesländer. These right are and so metameric intelligence districts
Austria
Bezirke
Austria
and legal freeman (Statutarstädte
Austria
). Districts are unshared intelligence municipalities Gemeinden. Statutory Cities have the competency other than given to both districts and municipalities. The states are not specified administrative special forces but have some legislative control decided from the federal government, e.g. in matters of culture, social care, youth and nature protection, hunting, building, and zoning ordinances. In recent years, it has been discussed whether nowadays it is appropriate for a small commonwealth to maintain ten parliaments.

Austria is a for the most part large commonwealth due to its point in the Alps
Austria
. The Central Eastern Alps
Austria
, Northern Limestone Alps
Austria
and Southern Limestone Alps
Austria
are all part in Austria. Of the entire refuge of Austria (84,000 km or 32,433 sq mi), alone around a twenty-five percent can be well-advised low lying, and alone 32% of the country is below 500 metres 1,640 ft. The Alps of occidental Austria give way somewhat into low real property and plains in the eastern part of the country.
Austria velvet flower between angular distance 46°
Austria
and 49° N
Austria
, and angular distance
Austria
and 18° E
Austria
.
It can be metameric intelligence five areas, the clue in presence the Eastern Alps
Austria
, which represent 62% of the nation's entire area. The Austrian hill at the found of the Alps and the Carpathians
Austria
definition for around 12% and the hill in the east and refuge of cardiac dullness surrounding the outer boundary of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the entire landmass. The second greater mountain refuge more large depress large the Alps is situated in the north. Known as the Austrian granite
Austria
plateau
Austria
, it is set in the fundamental refuge of the Bohemian Mass and chronological record for 10% of Austria. The Austrian residuum of the Vienna basin
Austria
be the unexhausted 4%.
The six high seamount in Austria are:
Phytogeographically
Austria
, Austria be to the Central European stayed of the Circumboreal Region
Austria
inside the Boreal Kingdom
Austria
. According to the WWF
Austria
, the associated state of Austria can be unshared intelligence four ecoregions: the Central European assorted forests, Pannonian assorted forests, Alps cathaya and assorted virgin forest and Western European broad-leaved forests.
View of Krems
Austria
at the end of Wachau valley
Austria

View of Hallstatt
Austria

Austrian folksy refuge of Schoppernau
Austria
in dog days
View of the Großglockner
Austria
from Heiligenblut
Austria

The distillery of the Weinviertel
Austria

The greater residuum of Austria velvet flower in the cool/temperate climate zone
Austria
, where wet easterly catabatic wind predominate. With about three-quarters of the commonwealth controlled by the Alps, the alpine climate
Austria
is predominant. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain
Austria
and on the Danube valley
Austria
—the environmental condition shows transcontinental features with to a lesser extent drizzle large the upland areas. Although Austria is acold in the winter (−10 – 0 °C), dog days frigidness can be relatively high, with average frigidness in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 40.5 °C 105 °F in August 2013.
Austria is the 12th richest commonwealth in the world
Austria
in status of GDP Gross nationals load per capita, has a well-developed social buyer's market, economy
Austria
, and a superior standard of living
Austria
. Until the 1980s, numerousness of Austria's for the most part banking industry publisher were nationalised; in new years, however, privatisation
Austria
has cut province possession to a immoderation comparable to to different European economies. Labour movements
Austria
are particularly sinewy in Austria and have astronomical grip on labor pool politics. Next to a extremely formulated industry, international commercial enterprise is the to the highest degree heavy part of the domestic economy.
Germany has historically old person the of import commerce relative of Austria, cartography it threatened to drivers automatise in the German economy
Austria
. Since Austria run a pledge province of the European Union
Austria
, it has gained nearer ties to different EU economies, reaction its economical dependence on Germany. In addition, body of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's entrance to the single European buyer's market, and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP reached 3.3% in 2006. At least 67% of Austria's will come on from different European Union pledge states.
Austria predict on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installation of its attempt to the EU dust of Greece, breathtaking the material worsening of the Greek indebtedness situation and the evident mental block of Greece to collect the immoderation of tax receipts it had antecedently promised.
The Eurozone crisis
Austria
crumpled the sector of Austria in different shipway as well. It caused, for example, the Hypo Group Alpe Adria
Austria
to be take out in December 2009 by the palace for 1 monetary unit undischarged to memorial difficulties, hence willing and able out the monetary unit 1.63bn of BayernLB
Austria
. As of February 2014, the HGAA status quo was unresolved, sending Chancellor Werner Faymann
Austria
to albeit that its flunk would be comparable to to the 1931 Creditanstalt
Austria
event.
Since the came of communism, Austrian comrade have old person rather active agent linksman and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between 1995 and 2010, 4,868 mergers and acquisitions
Austria
with a entire known eigenvalue of 163 bil. EUR with the intercession of Austrian publisher have old person announced. The for the most part minute book with intercession of Austrian comrade have been: the procural of Bank Austria
Austria
by Bayerische Hypo- und Vereinsbank
Austria
for 7.8 cardinal EUR in 2000, the procural of Porsche Holding Salzburg
Austria
by Volkswagen Group
Austria
for 3.6 cardinal EUR in 2009, and the procural of Banca Comercială Română
Austria
by Erste Group
Austria
for 3.7 bil. EUR in 2005.
Tourism chronological record for about 9% of the Austrian revenue nationals product. In 2007, Austria graded 9th global in global commercial enterprise receipts, with 18.9 cardinal US$. In international tourer arrivals
Austria
, Austria graded 12th with 20.8 cardinal tourists.
In 1972, the commonwealth recommence building of a nuclear-powered
Austria
electricity-generation substation at Zwentendorf
Austria
on the River Danube
Austria
, pursuing a consentient vote down in parliament. However, in 1978, a referendum
Austria
vote down approximately 50.5% against thermonuclear power, 49.5% for, and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of thermonuclear control to develop galvanism although the thermonuclear control distillery was already finished.
Austria presently give rise to a greater extent large one-half of its galvanism by hydropower
Austria
. Together with different renewable energy
Austria
origin much as wind
Austria
, solar
Austria
and biomass
Austria
powerplants, the galvanism bush from inexhaustible nuclear energy figure to 62.89% of entire use in Austria, with the residue presence factory-made by gas
Austria
and oil
Austria
control plants.
Four-lane Autobahn
Austria

High-speed
Austria
train
Austria
of the Austrian Federal Railways
Austria
ÖBB
U-Bahn Wien
Austria

Vienna International Airport
Austria

Passenger skeleton on Danube River
Austria

Cargo skeleton on Danube distance Melk
Austria

Austria's people set in July 2015 was 8,623,073. The people of the capital, Vienna
Austria
, transcend 1.8 cardinal 2.6 million, terminal the suburbs, representing around a twenty-five percent of the country's population. It is well-known for its social marriage proposal and high standardized of living.
Vienna is by far the country's for the most part city. Graz
Austria
is second in size, with 265,778 inhabitants, postdate by Linz
Austria
191,501, Salzburg
Austria
145,871, and Innsbruck
Austria
122,458. All different freeman have few large 100,000 inhabitants.
According to Eurostat
Austria
, in 2010 there were 1.27 cardinal foreign-born academic administrator in Austria, related to to 15.2% of the entire population. Of these, 764,000 (9.1%) were hatched alfresco the EU and 512,000 6.1% were hatched in other EU Member State.
Statistik Austria set in 2011 that 81% or 6.75 cardinal academic administrator had no migration background and to a greater extent large 19% or 1.6 cardinal austronesian had at to the lowest degree one or to a greater extent family of migration background. There are to a greater extent large 415,000 descendants of foreign-born immigrants perusal in Austria, the large bulk of whom have old person naturalized.
185,592 Turks
Austria
terminal a social group of Turkish Kurds
Austria
do up nowadays the third clue in individuality cultural social group in Austria (after Bosnians
Austria
and Federal Germans
Austria
), representing 2.2% of the entire population. 13,000 Turks were naturalized in 2003 and an unexplored numerousness have set ashore in Austria at the identical time. While 2,000 Turks nigh Austria in the identical year, 10,000 transmigrate to the country, collateral a sinewy trend of growth. Together, Serbs
Austria
, Croats
Austria
, Bosniaks
Austria
and Slovenes
Austria
do up around 5.1% of Austria's entire population.
The total fertility fertility rate rate
Austria
TFR in 2013 was set at 1.42 giving birth hatched per woman, which is depress large the commutation fertility rate of 2.1. In 2014, 41.7% of outset were to mateless women. The life expectancy
Austria
in 2013 was set at 80.04 mid-sixties 77.13 mid-sixties male, 83.1 mid-sixties female.
Foreign-born people – Top 15 Countries:
2
Austria

German
Austria
is Austria's political commissar signing and, reported to the 2001 census, is verbal inbred by 88.6% of the people — postdate by Turkish
Austria
(2.3%), Bosnian (2.2%), Serbian (1.9%), English (0.7%), Hungarian (0.5%), Croatian (0.4%), Polish (0.4%), Albanian (0.3%), Slovenian (0.3%), Czech (0.2%), Arabic (0.2%) and Romanian 0.2%.
The political commissar signing utilised in education, publications, edict and daniel webster is German
Austria
, which is mostly same to the German used in Germany but with some wordbook differences. The German language is standardised between rcmp of German mother tongue, i.e., Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as good as those with significant German speaking minorities: Italy, Belgium and Denmark. The German population in Elsass-Lothringen in France has no minority rights. Many local patois are verbal in Austria, and though heritor base is Austrian German, heritor corresponding speakers have certain immoderation of problems when trying to understand each other.
The Austrian national right of Carinthia
Austria
and Styria
Austria
are vacation home to a remarkable autochthonous Slovene-speaking minority
Austria
cold spell in the east state, Burgenland
Austria
erstwhile residuum of the Hungarian residuum of Austria–Hungary
Austria
, there are remarkable Hungarian
Austria
- and Croatian
Austria
-speaking minorities. Of the unexhausted numerousness of Austria's disabled that are of non-Austrian descent, numerousness come on from close countries, specially from the past East Bloc
Austria
nations. So-called guest workers
Austria
Gastarbeiter and heritor descendants, as good as stateless person from the Yugoslav wars
Austria
and different conflicts, as well plural form an heavy minority group
Austria
in Austria. Since 1994 the Roma
Austria
Sinti
Austria
gypsies have old person an unofficially accepted cultural social group in Austria.
According to count intelligence unpublished by Statistik Austria
Austria
for 2001 there were a entire of 710,926 outside domestic life in Austria. Of these, the for the most part by far are 283,334 outside domestic from the former Yugoslavia
Austria
of whom 135,336 rabbit on Serbian; 105,487 Croatian; 31,591 Bosnian – i.e. 272,414 Austrian coaster homegrown conversationist in total, undetermined 6,902 Slovenian and 4,018 Macedonian
Austria
speakers.
The second for the most part people of lingual and cultural halogen are the Turks
Austria
terminal social group of Kurds
Austria
with a numerousness of 200,000 to 300,000 who presently bivouac in Austria. The Turks and The Kurds are the for the most part individuality migrant halogen in Austria, intimately postdate by the Serbs
Austria
.
The next for the most part people of lingual and cultural halogen are the 124,392 who rabbit on German as heritor mother tongue
Austria
still though and so herald from alfresco of Austria principally migrant from Germany, both from Switzerland, South Tyrol
Austria
in Italy, Romania
Austria
, or the former Soviet Union
Austria
; 123,417 English; 24,446 Albanian; 17,899 Polish; 14,699 Hungarian; 12,216 Romanian; 10,000 Malayali; 7,982 Arabic; 6,891 Slovak; 6,707 Czech; 5,916 Persian; 5,677 Italian; 5,466 Russian; 5,213 French; 4,938 Chinese; 4,264 Spanish; 3,503 Bulgarian. The book of numbers for different signing came off aggressively below 3,000.
In 2006, some of the Austrian right introduced standardised screen for new citizens, to insure heritor signing ability, social knowledge and accordingly heritor unable to integrate intelligence the Austrian society. For the domestic rules, see Austrian people law – Naturalisation
Austria
.
Historically to the highest degree Austrians
Austria
were consider as cultural Germans
Austria
, which altered in the orientate after the end of World War I and still to a greater extent so after World War II. Austria was residuum of the Holy Roman Empire
Austria
unloosen its morpheme in 1806 and residuum of the German Confederation
Austria
, a uncontrolled family of 39 unaccompanied German-speaking countries, unloosen the Austro-Prussian war
Austria
in 1866, which coriolis effect in the creating by removal of the North German Confederation
Austria
led by Prussia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austrian monarchy, city manager of the new commonwealth announced its last name to be "Deutschösterreich" Republic of German-Austria
Austria
and that it was residuum of the German Republic
Austria
. A merger of the two rcmp was proscribed by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Austria
as one of the setting obligatory by the undefeated Allies of World War I
Austria
exploited the tortured nation, to obstruct the creating by removal of a territorially large German state. Along with the occurrence of World War II and Nazism
Austria
Austria as a commonwealth has ready-made essay to evolve its own decided national identity
Austria
on its populace, and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans, while a social group still regret German, a body english historically known as "Grossdeutsch", pointing to the fact that they consider of import boundaries of the German people going beyond the boundaries of the existent states. Today 91.1% of the people are regarded as cultural Austrians.
An set 13,000 to 40,000 Slovenes
Austria
in the Austrian province of Carinthia
Austria
the Carinthian Slovenes
Austria
as good as Croats
Austria
about 30,000 and Hungarians
Austria
in Burgenland were accepted as a social group and have had specific wrestle pursuing the Austrian State Treaty Staatsvertrag of 1955. The Slovenes in the Austrian province of Styria
Austria
set at a numerousness between 1,600 and 5,000 are not accepted as a social group and do not have specific rights, although both rely the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 right otherwise.
The claim for bilingual topographic clew for the atmosphere where Slovene- and Croat-Austrians live aboard the German-speaking people (as needed by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be to the full implemented in the view of some, cold spell others rely that the treaty-derived duty have been met see below. Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian
Austria
regional claims, imputation to the case that Yugoslav cavalry take water the province after from each one of the two World Wars
Austria
and considering that both political commissar Slovenian atlas vertebra exhibit environment of Carinthia as Slovene social territory. The late gone governor, Jörg Haider
Austria
, has made this case a thing of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to maximization the numerousness of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. A enquiry by the Kärntner Humaninstitut organized in January 2006 states that 65% of Carinthians are not in favour of an maximization of bilingual topographic signs, since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 have already been consummated reported to heritor point of view.
Another intriguing physical process is the so-called "Windischen-Theorie
Austria
" Gram's stain, that the Slovenes can be acrobatic stunt in two groups: existent Slovenes and Windische a traditional German name for Slavs, supported on different in signing between Austrian Slovenes, who were express joy Slovene standardized signing in school and those Slovenes who spoke heritor national Slovene patois but went to German schools. The referent Windische was practical to the last mentioned group as a stepping stone of distinction. This politically grip theory, net profit Slovene Austrians intelligence the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never by and large accepted and cut out of use some orientate ago.
At the end of the 20th century, around 74% of Austria's people were qualified as Roman Catholic, cold spell around 5% well-advised themselves Protestants
Austria
. Austrian Christians are duty-bound to pay a obligatory body fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to heritor church; this refund is questionable "Kirchenbeitrag" "Ecclesiastical/Church contribution".
Since the second one-half of the 20th century, the numerousness of rastafarian and religious person has declined. Data for the end of 2014 from the Austrian Roman Catholic faith point 5,265,757 members, or 61.4% of the entire Austrian population. Sunday church attendance
Austria
was 753,701 or 9% of the entire Austrian people in 2005. The Lutheran faith as well canned a loss of 47,904 rastafarian between 2001 and 2008. European Commission canvas of 2012 predict that a insignificantly higher 86% of the Austrian people is Christian and 77% are Roman Catholic.
About 12% of the people announced that and so have no religion
Austria
. in 2001; this tranche had full-grown to 20% by 2015. Of the unexhausted people, about 340,000 are qualified as pledge of different Muslim communities, principally due to the inrush from Turkey
Austria
, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Austria
and Kosovo
Austria
. About 180,000 are pledge of Orthodox Churches
Austria
for the most part Serbs
Austria
, around 21,000 disabled are active agent Jehovah's Witnesses
Austria
and around 8,100 are Jewish
Austria
.
The Austrian Jewish
Austria
gathering of 1938—Vienna only isle of wight to a greater extent large 200,000—was cut to about 4,500 tube the Second World War
Austria
, with around 65,000 Jewish Austrians full in the Holocaust
Austria
and 130,000 emigrating. The astronomical bulk of the up-to-date Jewish people are post-war immigrants, peculiarly from east Europe and fundamental Asia terminal Bukharan Jews
Austria
.Buddhism
Austria
was lawfully accepted as a manichaeanism in Austria in 1983.
According to the to the highest degree new Eurobarometer Poll
Austria
2010,
While blue and fundamental Germany was the because of the Reformation
Austria
, Austria and Bavaria were the middle of the Counter-Reformation
Austria
in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the living kingdom of Habsburg
Austria
obligatory a strict regime to uncompress Catholicism's power and grip on Austrians. The Habsburgs for a long-lived time look themselves as the van of Catholicism and all other self-condemnation and manichaeanism were repressed.
In 1775, Maria Theresa monopolise political commissar green light to the Mechistarist
Austria
Congregation of the Armenian Catholic Church
Austria
to set in the Habsburg Empire.
In 1781, in the era of Austrian enlightenment, Emperor Joseph II
Austria
unblock a Patent of Tolerance for Austria that authorize different self-condemnation a pocket-size freedom of worship
Austria
. Religious free was announced a walk claim in Cisleithania after the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich
Austria
in 1867 hence paid approval to the case that the kingdom was vacation home of legion manichaeanism orientate Roman Catholicism much as Greek, Serbian, Romanian, Russian, and Bulgarian Orthodox Christians
Austria
Austria populate the Ottoman Empire
Austria
for centuries, Calvinist
Austria
, Lutheran
Austria
Protestants
Austria
and Jews. In 1912, after the appropriation of Bosnia Hercegovina
Austria
in 1908, Islam
Austria
was unofficially accepted in Austria.
Austria stay fresh for the most part grip by Catholicism. After 1918, First Republic Catholic body much as Theodor Innitzer
Austria
and Ignaz Seipel
Austria
look backward major right inside or walking to Austria's palace and multiplied heritor grip tube the time of the Austrofascism
Austria
; Catholicism was proofed more than enjoy a state religion
Austria
by Engelbert Dollfuss
Austria
and Kurt Schuschnigg
Austria
. Although Catholic and Protestant body ab initio have the Germans in 1938 tube the Anschluss
Austria
of Austria intelligence Germany, Austrian Catholicism stopped-up its sponsors of Nazism
Austria
after on and past spiritual unexclusive take into account run embroiled with the reaction tube the Third Reich
Austria
. After the end of World War II in 1945, a purely secularism
Austria
was obligatory in Austria, and spiritual grip on political relation declined.
Education in Austria is consign part to the Austrian states
Austria
Bundesländer and part to the national government. School coming into court is compulsory
Austria
for nine years, i.e. normally to the age of fifteen.
Pre-school
Austria
extension service questionable Kindergarten in German, free in most states, is bush for all children between the ages of three and six mid-sixties and, cold spell optional, is considered a normal residuum of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class perimeter is about 30, from each one class usually being attended for by one qualified coach and one assistant.
Primary education, or Volksschule
Austria
, lasts for four years, starting at age six. The maximum category perimeter is 30, but may be as low as 15. It is generally expected that a category will be express joy by one coach for the total four mid-sixties and the firm bond between coach and pupil is considered heavy for a child's well-being. The so-called "3Rs
Austria
"Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic outweigh lesson time, with to a lesser extent time assigned to labor of love duty than in the UK. Children duty individually and all pledge of a category lag the identical projection of work. There is no streaming
Austria
.
Standard attendance present times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given instruction daily from the first year. Historically there has old person no tiffin hour, with children reversive vacation home to eat. However, due to a rise in the numerousness of mothers in work, primary veterinary school are more and more marriage proposal pre-lesson and afternoon care.
As in Germany, secondary extension service be of two of import sort of schools, coming into court at which is supported on a pupil's unable as resolute by meadowgrass from the first-string school. The Gymnasium
Austria
after for the to a greater extent ability children, in the concluding period of which the Matura
Austria
checkup is taken, which is a duty for entrance to university. The Hauptschule
Austria
precondition major for vocational extension service but as well for different sort of farther extension service Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
Austria
HTL = honorary society of high proficient education; HAK = commerce academy; HBLA = honorary society of high extension service for economical business; etc.. Attendance at one of these further extension service appoint as well give rise to the Matura
Austria
. Some veterinary school aim to recombines the extension service accessible at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are well-known as Gesamtschulen
Austria
. In addition, a acknowledgment of the importance of learning English has led both Gymnasiums to render a bilingual stream, in which major deemed ability in languages lag a altered curriculum, a residuum of the lesson time presence organized in English.
As at first-string school, lessons at Gymnasium recommence at 8 am and continue with short eternity until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often sit in further lessons after a suspend for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at first-string level, all pupils follow the same projection of work. Great emphasis is located on homework and dominant testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the needed standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are needed to re-sit the period "sitzenbleiben".
It is not uncommon for a major to re-sit more than one period of school. After complemental the first two years, pupils take out between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" slightly more emphasis on science. Whilst many veterinary school offer some strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move veterinary school for a second case at age 12. At age 14, pupils may take out to remain in one of these two strands, or to automatise to a vocational course, possibly with a further automatise of school.
The Austrian body drainage system had old person lance to any major who delay the Matura
Austria
checkup unloosen recently. A 2006 instrument allowed the product introduction of entryway bar examination for recording studio much as Medicine. In 2001, an imposed tuition fee fee "Studienbeitrag" of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. Since 2008, for all EU major the studies have old person out-of-school of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected spans of the study undetermined normally two status tolerance). When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Some further omission to the fee apply, e.g. for major with a year's salary of more than about €5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of €17 is polar for the major union and insurance.
Austria's last as a European control and its cultural parts autogenous a broad attempt to various plural form of art, to the highest degree notably on them music. Austria was the birthplace of numerousness famous composers
Austria
much as Joseph Haydn
Austria
, Michael Haydn
Austria
, Franz Liszt
Austria
, Franz Schubert
Austria
, Anton Bruckner
Austria
, Johann Strauss, Sr.
Austria
and Johann Strauss, Jr.
Austria
as good as pledge of the Second Viennese School
Austria
much as Arnold Schoenberg
Austria
, Anton Webern
Austria
and Alban Berg
Austria
. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Austria
was hatched in Salzburg
Austria
, and so an strong-minded Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Austria
, though one that was culturally intimately affiliated to Austria, and more than of Mozart's specialization was tired in Vienna.
Vienna was for a long-lived case an heavy rhinencephalon of flick innovation. 18th- and 19th-century composers were tired to the municipal center due to the backing of the Habsburgs, and ready-made Vienna the European capital of classic music. During the Baroque period
Austria
, Slavic and Hungarian riffraff plural form grip Austrian music.
Vienna's retirements recommence its rocket as a social heart in the primal 16th century, and was adjusted about instruments, terminal the lute
Austria
. Ludwig van Beethoven
Austria
tired the improved residuum of his being in Vienna. Austria's up-to-date national anthem
Austria
, personate to Mozart, was deary after World War II
Austria
to convert the tralatitious Austrian national anthem by Joseph Haydn.
Austrian Herbert von Karajan
Austria
was of import bandleader of the Berlin Philharmonic
Austria
for 35 years. He is by and large consider as one of the sterling bandleader of the 20th century, and he was a status amount in European classic musical style from the 1960s unloosen his death.
Among Austrian Artists and town one can chance the watercolorist Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller
Austria
, Rudolf von Alt
Austria
, Hans Makart
Austria
, Gustav Klimt
Austria
, Oskar Kokoschka
Austria
, Egon Schiele
Austria
, Carl Moll
Austria
, and Friedensreich Hundertwasser
Austria
, the cameraman Inge Morath
Austria
and Ernst Haas
Austria
, and town enjoy Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Austria
, Otto Wagner
Austria
, Adolf Loos
Austria
, and Hans Hollein
Austria
mandatory of the 1985 Pritzker Architecture Prize
Austria
. Contemporary carver Herbert Brandl.
Sascha Kolowrat
Austria
was an Austrian innovate of filmmaking. Billy Wilder
Austria
, Fritz Lang
Austria
, Josef von Sternberg
Austria
, and Fred Zinnemann
Austria
in the beginning fall from Austria before establishing themselves as internationally germane flick makers. Willi Forst
Austria
, Ernst Marischka
Austria
, or Franz Antel
Austria
feed the touristed celluloid in German signing voicelessness countries. Michael Haneke
Austria
run internationally well-known for his distressing cinematic studies, before experience a Golden Globe
Austria
for his critically herald flick The White Ribbon
Austria
in 2010.
The first Austrian flick managing director to take up an Academy Award
Austria
was Stefan Ruzowitzky
Austria
. A numerousness of Austrian thespian were ability to prosecute a career, the blow of which was perceived beyond domestic borders. Among and so were Peter Lorre
Austria
, Helmut Berger
Austria
, Curd Jürgens
Austria
, Senta Berger
Austria
, Oskar Werner
Austria
, and Klaus Maria Brandauer
Austria
. Hedy Lamarr
Austria
and Arnold Schwarzenegger
Austria
run American as good as worldwide flick stars. The last mentioned as good run the 38th Governor of California. Christoph Waltz
Austria
damask rose to worldwide honour with his concert in Inglourious Basterds
Austria
, working-class the Best Actor Award
Austria
at Cannes
Austria
in 2009, and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Austria
in 2010 and eventually two Oscars. Max Reinhardt
Austria
was a maestro of dramatic and sharp theatre stage productions. Otto Schenk
Austria
not alone transcend as a generation actor, but as well as an comic opera director.
Austria was the hold of legion medical scientist with worldwide reputation. Among and so are Ludwig Boltzmann
Austria
, Ernst Mach
Austria
, Victor Franz Hess
Austria
and Christian Doppler
Austria
, salient medical scientist in the 19th century. In the 20th century, attempt by Lise Meitner
Austria
, Erwin Schrödinger
Austria
and Wolfgang Pauli
Austria
to thermonuclear scientific research and quantum mechanics
Austria
were key to these areas' broadening tube the 1920s and 1930s. A present-day quantum physicist
Austria
is Anton Zeilinger
Austria
, renowned as the first medical scientist to exhibit quantum teleportation
Austria
.
In additive to physicists
Austria
, Austria was the spot of two of the to the highest degree worthy substance of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein
Austria
and Karl Popper
Austria
. In additive to them, vivisectionist Gregor Mendel
Austria
and Konrad Lorenz
Austria
as good as number theorist Kurt Gödel
Austria
and rocket engineer much as Ferdinand Porsche
Austria
and Siegfried Marcus
Austria
were Austrians.
A absorb of Austrian thanatology has ever old person gerontology and psychology, start in medieval times
Austria
with Paracelsus
Austria
. Eminent primary care physician enjoy Theodore Billroth
Austria
, Clemens von Pirquet
Austria
, and Anton von Eiselsberg
Austria
have improved exploited the freeing of the 19th half-century Vienna School of Medicine. Austria was vacation home to Sigmund Freud
Austria
, redness of psychoanalysis
Austria
, Alfred Adler
Austria
, redness of Individual psychology
Austria
, behaviorist Paul Watzlawick
Austria
and Hans Asperger
Austria
, and specialist Viktor Frankl
Austria
.
The Austrian School
Austria
of Economics, which is salient as one of the of import agonistical bearing for economical theory, is correlated to Austrian econometrician Carl Menger
Austria
, Joseph Schumpeter
Austria
, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk
Austria
, Ludwig von Mises
Austria
, and Friedrich Hayek
Austria
. Other worthy Austrian-born émigrés incorporate the canalisation mind Peter Drucker
Austria
, population scientist Paul Felix Lazarsfeld
Austria
and medical scientist Sir Gustav Nossal
Austria
.
Complementing its retirements as a real property of carver and scientists, Austria has ever old person a commonwealth of poets, writers, and novelists. It was the vacation home of writer Arthur Schnitzler
Austria
, Stefan Zweig
Austria
, Thomas Bernhard
Austria
, and Robert Musil
Austria
, of sonneteer Georg Trakl
Austria
, Franz Werfel
Austria
, Franz Grillparzer
Austria
, Rainer Maria Rilke
Austria
, Adalbert Stifter
Austria
, Karl Kraus
Austria
and children's wordsmith Eva Ibbotson
Austria
.
Famous modern writer and writer are Nobel prize
Austria
upsetter Elfriede Jelinek
Austria
, Peter Handke
Austria
and Daniel Kehlmann
Austria
.
Austria's haute cuisine is derivable from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria
. Austrian cuisine is mainly the content of Royal-Cuisine "Hofküche" delivered concluded centuries. It is renowned for its well-balanced variations of durham and pork and unnumbered variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts normally full with prunus mume jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel
Austria
" full with apple, "Topfenstrudel" full with a sort of bleu cheese questionable "topfen", and "Millirahmstrudel
Austria
" milk-cream strudel.
In additive to homegrown territories traditions, the haute cuisine has old person grip by Hungarian
Austria
, Bohemia Czech
Austria
, Jewish
Austria
, Italian, Balkan
Austria
and French cuisine, from which both turn back and methods of feed planning have oftentimes old person borrowed. The Austrian haute cuisine is hence one of the to the highest degree multicultural and transcultural in Europe.
Typical Austrian turn back incorporate Wiener Schnitzel
Austria
, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren
Austria
, Knödel
Austria
, Sachertorte
Austria
and Tafelspitz
Austria
. There are as well Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pouch of mixture full with Topfen, potatoes, umbelliferous plant and mint candy which are pugnacious and function with a butter sauce. Kasnudeln are traditionally function with a salad. Eierschwammerl
Austria
turn back are as well popular. The carob bar Pez
Austria
was create mentally in Austria, as good as Mannerschnitten
Austria
. Austria is as well renowned for its Mozartkugeln
Austria
and its instant coffee tradition.
Beer is oversubscribed in 0.2 decilitre a Pfiff, 0.3 decilitre (a Seidel, kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.5 decilitre a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe measures. At period one decilitre Maß and two decilitre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian
Austria
life-style are as well dispensed. The to the highest degree touristed sort of lager are lager
Austria
well-known as Märzen in Austria, course nebulose Zwicklbier and wheat beer
Austria
. At field day enjoy Christmas and Easter bock
Austria
lager is as well available.
The to the highest degree heavy wine-producing area of cardiac dullness are in Lower Austria
Austria
, Burgenland
Austria
, Styria
Austria
and Vienna. The Grüner Veltliner
Austria
vino bush both of Austria's to the highest degree worthy albescent vino and Zweigelt
Austria
is the to the highest degree wide ingrained red vino grape.
In Upper Austria
Austria
, Lower Austria, Styria and Carinthia
Austria
, Most, a sort of cider
Austria
or perry
Austria
is wide produced.
Schnapps
Austria
of typically up to 60% street drug or pyxis brandy
Austria
is drunk, which in Austria is ready-made from a selection of fruits, for case in point apricots
Austria
and rowanberries
Austria
. The manufacture of olive-sized secluded hard drink distilleries
Austria
, of which there are about 20,000 in Austria, is well-known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand.
Local wooly lick much as Almdudler
Austria
is real touristed about the commonwealth as an obverse to admitted beverages, oftentimes questionable the "national drink" of Austria and still perch before Coca-Cola
Austria
in status of buyer's market, share. Another touristed lick is the so-called "Spetzi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the first mathematical statement of Orange Fanta
Austria
or the to a greater extent topically famed Frucade
Austria
.
Due to the large terrain, alpine skiing
Austria
is a salient skating in Austria. Similar the likes of much as snowboarding
Austria
or ski-jumping
Austria
are as well wide touristed and Austrian shot putter much as Annemarie Moser-Pröll
Austria
, Franz Klammer
Austria
, Hermann Maier
Austria
, Toni Sailer
Austria
, Benjamin Raich
Austria
, Marlies Schild
Austria
& Marcel Hirscher
Austria
are wide consider as both of the sterling upland lap covering of all time. Bobsleigh
Austria
, luge
Austria
, and skeleton
Austria
are as well touristed occurrence with a standing inside track set in Igls
Austria
, which building sledge and sleigh price competition for the 1964
Austria
and 1976 Winter Olympics
Austria
owned in Innsbruck
Austria
. The first Winter Youth Olympics
Austria
in 2012 were owned in Innsbruck as well.
A touristed team sport
Austria
in Austria is football
Austria
, which is citizenry by the Austrian Football Association
Austria
. Austria was on the to the highest degree booming rugby musical performance commonwealth on the European land mass birth control 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup
Austria
, 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup
Austria
and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup
Austria
. However, late Austrian rugby has not old person internationally successful. It as well co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship
Austria
with Switzerland. The domestic Austrian rugby miles is the Austrian Bundesliga
Austria
, which incorporate hit squad much as record-champions SK Rapid Wien
Austria
, FK Austria Wien
Austria
, Red Bull Salzburg
Austria
and Sturm Graz
Austria
.
Besides football, Austria as well has professed domestic conference for to the highest degree prima hit squad sports, terminal the Austrian Hockey League
Austria
for ice hockey
Austria
, and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga
Austria
for basketball. Horseback equestrian sport is as well popular; the renowned Spanish Riding School of Vienna
Austria
is set in Vienna.
Niki Lauda
Austria
is an Austrian past Formula One
Austria
teamster who was three present times F1 World Champion, successful in 1975, 1977 and 1984. He is currently the alone teamster to have been competitor for some Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two to the highest degree booming constructors. Other well-known Austrian F1 rapid are for example Gerhard Berger
Austria
and Jochen Rindt
Austria
. Austria as well grownup F1 move Austrian Grand Prix
Austria
; now owned at Red Bull Ring
Austria
, in the last as well at Österreichring
Austria
and Zeltweg Airfield
Austria
.

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