Caribbean

The Caribbean (/ˌkærɨˈbiːən/
Caribbean
or /kəˈrɪbiən/
Caribbean
; Spanish
Caribbean
: Caribe; Dutch
Caribbean
:
Caribbean
 Caraïben
Caribbean
 
; Caribbean Hindustani
Caribbean
: कैरिबियन Kairibiyana; French
Caribbean
: Caraïbe or to a greater extent usually Antilles) is a atmosphere that be of the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean
, its aegean island both enclosed by the Caribbean Sea and both ordination both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, and the close coasts. The atmosphere is southeastern of the Gulf of Mexico
Caribbean
and the North American
Caribbean
mainland, eastward of Central America
Caribbean
, and northern of South America
Caribbean
.
Situated for the most part on the Caribbean Plate
Caribbean
, the atmosphere be to a greater extent large 700 islands, islets
Caribbean
, reefs
Caribbean
, and cays
Caribbean
. See the list
Caribbean
. These aegean island by and large plural form island arcs
Caribbean
that draw the east and blue bound of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, concordant of the Greater Antilles
Caribbean
on the northern and the Lesser Antilles
Caribbean
on the mississippi and eastward terminal the Leeward Antilles
Caribbean
, are residuum of the slightly large West Indies
Caribbean
grouping, which as well incorporate the Lucayan Archipelago
Caribbean
placement The Bahamas
Caribbean
and Turks and Caicos Islands
Caribbean
northern of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea
Caribbean
. In a beamy sense, the dry land rcmp of Belize
Caribbean
, Venezuela
Caribbean
, Guyana
Caribbean
, Suriname
Caribbean
, and French Guiana
Caribbean
are as well included.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean aegean island are normally consider as a subregion
Caribbean
of North America
Caribbean
and are arranged intelligence 30 regional terminal sovereign states
Caribbean
, overseas departments
Caribbean
, and dependencies
Caribbean
. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010 there was a commonwealth well-known as the Netherlands Antilles
Caribbean
collected of five states, all of which were Dutch
Caribbean
dependencies. While from January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was as well a short-lived commonwealth questionable the Federation of the West Indies
Caribbean
collected of ten English
Caribbean
-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were and so British
Caribbean
dependencies. The West Indies field cricket team
Caribbean
preserve to argue numerousness of those nations.
The atmosphere tube its last name from that of the Caribs
Caribbean
, an cultural halogen instant in the Lesser Antilles
Caribbean
and environment of close South America at the case of the Spanish conquest.
The two to the highest degree dominant oral communication of "Caribbean" are KARR-ə-BEE-ən
Caribbean
, with the first-string pronunciation on the third syllable, and kə-RIB-ee-ən
Caribbean
, with the pronunciation on the second. The past oral communication is the senior of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable different has old person self-constituted for concluded 75 years. It has old person suggested that speakers of British English
Caribbean
like KARR-ə-BEE-ən
Caribbean
cold spell North American conversationist to a greater extent typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən
Caribbean
, although not all origin agree. Usage is acrobatic stunt inside Caribbean English itself.
The order "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its of import 1, are geographical and political. The Caribbean can as well be expanded to include regional with sinewy social and ahistorical bridge to slavery
Caribbean
, European colonisation
Caribbean
, and the plantation
Caribbean
system.
The topography and environmental condition in the Caribbean atmosphere varies: Some aegean island in the atmosphere have comparatively even piece of land of non-volcanic origin. These aegean island incorporate Aruba
Caribbean
control alone peanut unstable features, Barbados
Caribbean
, Bonaire
Caribbean
, the Cayman Islands
Caribbean
, Saint Croix
Caribbean
, the Bahamas
Caribbean
, and Antigua
Caribbean
. Others exhibit knockabout high mountain-ranges enjoy the aegean island of Cuba
Caribbean
, Hispaniola
Caribbean
, Puerto Rico
Caribbean
, Jamaica
Caribbean
, Dominica
Caribbean
, Montserrat
Caribbean
, Saba
Caribbean
, Saint Kitts
Caribbean
, Saint Lucia
Caribbean
, Saint Thomas
Caribbean
, Saint John
Caribbean
, Tortola
Caribbean
, Grenada
Caribbean
, Saint Vincent
Caribbean
, Guadeloupe
Caribbean
, Martinique
Caribbean
, and Trinidad & Tobago
Caribbean
.
Definitions of the status Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles oftentimes vary. The Virgin Islands as residuum of the Puerto Rican slope are sometimes enclosed with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is oftentimes utilised to delineate an island arc that incorporate Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.
The ethel waters of the Caribbean Sea grownup large, unsettled veterinary school of fish, turtles, and coral reef
Caribbean
formations. The Puerto Rico trench
Caribbean
, set on the outer boundary of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea sporting to the northern of the aegean island of Puerto Rico, is the to-do attractor in all of the Atlantic Ocean.
The atmosphere hunker down in the rivet line of individual prima commercial enterprise satellite with the Panama Canal
Caribbean
bridge the occidental Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.
The environmental condition of the refuge is tropic to subtropic in Cuba, The Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Rainfall different with elevation, size, and water ice up-to-date (cool upwellings preserve the ABC islands
Caribbean
arid). Warm, dampish tradewinds
Caribbean
impact systematically from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on large islands. Occasional northwesterlies touch on the northern aegean island in the winter. The region use year-round sunshine, metameric into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the last six week of the year being pisser than the first half.
Hurricane Season is from June to November, but and so give to a greater extent oftentimes in August and September and to a greater extent commonness in the blue aegean island of the Caribbean.Hurricanes
Caribbean
that sometimes push down the atmosphere normally push down northerly of Grenada
Caribbean
and to the europe of Barbados. The of import cyclone accouterment instrumentation to northwestern of the aegean island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.
Water temperatures vary from 31°C (88°F) to 22°C (72°F) all around the year. The air frigidness is warm, in the 20s and 30s °C 70s, 80s, and 90s °F during the year, alone varies from season to dog days around 2–5 degrees on the southern islands and around 10–20 degrees different can occur in the blue islands of the Caribbean. The blue islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and The Dominican Republic, may be influenced by transcontinental masses during season months, such as cold fronts.
Aruba: Latitude 12°N
Puerto Rico: Latitude 18°N
Cuba: at Latitude 22°N
Greater Antilles
Caribbean

Lesser Antilles
Caribbean

All aegean island at both attractor were, and a few no longer are, colonies
Caribbean
of European nations; a few are overseas or independency territories
Caribbean
:
The British West Indies were joined by the United Kingdom intelligence a West Indies Federation
Caribbean
between 1958 and 1962. The strong-minded rcmp erstwhile residuum of the B.W.I. no longer have a conjunct cricket
Caribbean
hit squad that fulfil in Test matches
Caribbean
, One Day Internationals
Caribbean
and Twenty20 Internationals
Caribbean
. The West Indian field cricket team
Caribbean
incorporate the South American commonwealth of Guyana
Caribbean
, the alone past British body on the dry land of that continent.
In addition, these rcmp tranche the University of the West Indies
Caribbean
as a regional entity. The university be of three of import field in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a small field in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in different contributory regional much as Trinidad.
The Caribbean aegean island are significant for the biodiversity of heritor animals, kingdom fungi and plants, and have old person sorted as one of Conservation International
Caribbean
's biodiversity hotspots
Caribbean
origin of heritor exceptionally different telluric and usmc ecosystems, large from montane cloud forests
Caribbean
to cactus
Caribbean
scrublands
Caribbean
. The region also contains around 8% by constructed area of the world's pink reefs on with extensive seaweed meadows, both of which are frequently open up in the shallow marine waters ordination aegean island and transcontinental tideland off the region.
For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations. That checklist includes to a greater extent than 11250 taxonomic category of kingdom fungi canned from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungous taxonomic category already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungous taxonomic category occurring in the Caribbean, terminal taxonomic category not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the by and large accepted set that only about 7% of all kingdom fungi worldwide have been discovered. Though the figure of available information is still small, a first effort has been ready-made to set the number of fungous taxonomic category endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 taxonomic category of kingdom fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island; for Puerto Rico
Caribbean
, the numerousness is 789 species; for the Dominican Republic
Caribbean
, the numerousness is 699 species; for Trinidad and Tobago, the numerousness is 407 species.
Many of the ecosystems
Caribbean
of the Caribbean aegean island have old person desolate by deforestation
Caribbean
, pollution, and humanness encroachment. The advent of the first group is renamed with absorption of giant
Caribbean
owls
Caribbean
and dwarf dry land sloths
Caribbean
. The spot contains dozens of extremely vulnerable embryo large from birds, to tusker and reptiles, kingdom fungi and plants. Examples of vulnerable embryo incorporate the Puerto Rican amazon
Caribbean
, two taxonomic category of solenodon
Caribbean
big word stress in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile
Caribbean
.
The region's pink reefs, which incorporate around 70 species of hard moralistic and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishes have countermine rapid retrogress in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are well-advised peculiarly threatened to global warming and water acidification. According to a UNEP
Caribbean
report, the Caribbean Sea coral ridge strength get nonextant in next 20 mid-sixties due to population fragmentation along the tideland lines, overfishing, the nonbiodegradable pollution of inshore areas and worldwide warming.
Some Caribbean aegean island have piece of land that Europeans open up fit for socialisation for agriculture. Tobacco
Caribbean
was an heavy primal output tube the resident era, but was finally contend by sugarcane
Caribbean
steel production as the region's good crop. Sugar was factory-made from saccharum for smuggle to Europe. Cuba
Caribbean
and Barbados
Caribbean
were historically the for the most part give rise of sugar
Caribbean
. The tropic land drainage system hence fall to outweigh Caribbean settlement. Other aegean island were open up to have piece of land mismated for agriculture
Caribbean
, for case in point Dominica
Caribbean
, which physical object to a great extent forested. The aegean island in the gray Lesser Antilles
Caribbean
, Aruba
Caribbean
, Bonaire
Caribbean
and Curaçao
Caribbean
, are highly arid, cartography and so unfit for agriculture. However, and so have salt
Caribbean
fly that were upon by the Dutch. Sea water ice ice was tense intelligence shelvy ponds, young-bearing gritty xanthate when the water ice ice evaporated.
The naturalness environmental biodiversity of the Caribbean aegean island has led to new gametogenesis in eco-tourism
Caribbean
. This sort of commercial enterprise is gametogenesis on aegean island deficient flaxen coach and heavy humanness populations.
Epiphytes bromeliads, mounting area in the rainforest
Caribbean
of Dominica
Caribbean
.
A dark-green and dark hyoscyamine frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caribbean

Caesalpinia
Caribbean
pulcherrima
, Guadeloupe
Caribbean
.
Costus speciosus
Caribbean
, a marshland plant, Guadeloupe
Caribbean
.
An Atlantic phantom crab
Caribbean
Ocypode quadrata in Martinique
Caribbean
.
Crescentia cujete
Caribbean
, or bottle gourd fruit, Martinique
Caribbean
.
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Caribbean
thalassa razor-fish fish, concluded Bispira brunnea
Caribbean
societal paddies sandstorm worms.
Two Stenopus hispidus
Caribbean
patterned cleanser peewee on a Xestospongia muta
Caribbean
big tubing sponge.
A tweedledum and tweedledee of Cyphoma signatum
Caribbean
identity verification cowry, off inshore Haiti
Caribbean
.
The Martinique amazon
Caribbean
, Amazona martinicana, is an nonextant taxonomic category of repeat in the Psittacidae family.
Anastrepha
Caribbean
suspensa
, a Caribbean pyxis fly.
Hemidactylus
Caribbean
mabouia
, a tropic gecko, in Dominica
Caribbean
.
At the case of European contact
Caribbean
, the status cultural halogen in the Caribbean enclosed the Taíno
Caribbean
of the Greater Antilles
Caribbean
and blue Lesser Antilles
Caribbean
, the Island Caribs
Caribbean
of the gray Lesser Antilles, and small decided halogen much as the Guanajatabey
Caribbean
of occidental Cuba and the Ciguayo
Caribbean
of western Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been about 750,000 immediately before European contact, although depress and higher figures are given. After contact, social barracking and epidemic diseases such as pox and measles to which and so had no naturalness status led to a decline in the Amerindian population. From 1500 to 1800 the population damask rose as slaves set ashore from West Africa such as the Kongo
Caribbean
, Igbo
Caribbean
, Akan
Caribbean
, Fon
Caribbean
and Yoruba
Caribbean
as good as militaristic prisoner of war and seize someone from Ireland, who were newsman tube the Cromwellian rule in England. Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark as well arrived, although the impermanency fertility rate was superior for some groups.
The people is set to have top out 2.2 cardinal by 1800. Immigrants from India, China, and different rcmp set ashore in the 19th century. After the morpheme of the Atlantic someone trade
Caribbean
, the people multiplied naturally. The entire territories people was set at 37.5 cardinal by 2000.
The bulk of the Caribbean has people of principally Africans in the French Caribbean
Caribbean
, Anglophone Caribbean
Caribbean
and Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
, there are minorities of mixed-race and European people of Dutch, English, French, Italian and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, specially those of Chinese
Caribbean
and Indian
Caribbean
descent, plural form a remarkable social group in the region and also throw in to racial communities. All of heritor origin set ashore in the 19th half-century as apprenticed laborers.
The Spanish-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
have principally assorted race, African, or European
Caribbean
majorities. Puerto Rico has a European bulk with a suspension of European-African (mulatto), and a astronomical West African minority. One third of Cuba's for the most part Caribbean aegean island people is of African descent, with a astronomical Mulatto
Caribbean
assorted African–European population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the for the most part assorted move population, principally climb down from Europeans, West Africans
Caribbean
, and Amerindians.
Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a real large African majority, in additive to a remarkable assorted race, Chinese, Europeans, Indian, Lebanese, Latin American, and Syrian populations. This is a coriolis effect of years of commerce of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans think of to themselves as either assorted race or Brown. The status quo is similar for the Caricom
Caribbean
right of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan sector due to the advent of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, Native Amerindians and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that oftentimes be the boundaries of prima ethnicities and incorporate Chindian
Caribbean
, Mulatto
Caribbean
and Dougla
Caribbean
.
Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole
Caribbean
, and Papiamento
Caribbean
are the dominant political commissar signing of different rcmp in the region, though a containerful of incomparable creole languages
Caribbean
or patois can as well be open up from one commonwealth to another.
Christianity
Caribbean
is the dominant manichaeanism in the Caribbean 84.7%. Other spiritual halogen in the atmosphere are Hinduism
Caribbean
, Islam
Caribbean
, Buddhist
Caribbean
, Rastafari
Caribbean
, and Afro-American religions
Caribbean
much as Santería
Caribbean
and Vodou
Caribbean
.
Caribbean societies are real different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens. The current economical and governmental difficulty the right face individually are commonness to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current difficulty and avoid projected problems. From a governmental and economical perspective, regionalism
Caribbean
function to do Caribbean right active agent move in current worldwide personal matters through aggregate coalitions. In 1973, the first governmental non-standard speech in the Caribbean Basin
Caribbean
was created by rachet up of the English-speaking Caribbean commonwealth through the honorary society well-known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community CARICOM
Caribbean
which is set in Guyana.
Certain scholars have represent both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communistic subsystem much as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary subsystem as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean subsystem seem to reflect a "blending of tralatitious and modern patterns, docile hybrid subsystem that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent walk traditions yet ultimately stick out to function in similar ways." The political subsystem of the Caribbean states tranche similar practices.
The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars rely that regionalism ordnance exist in the Caribbean because each olive-sized province is unique. On the different hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as good as historical ties on the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as good as a desire for aggregate action." These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to contend in the worldwide economic system.
Furthermore, a lack of involvement from different prima states promoted non-standard speech in the region. In new years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have old person focused on different areas. As a result there has old person a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean." The lack of worldwide support for these small, relatively broke states, subserve non-standard speech prosper.
Following the Cold War other pocketbook issue of essentialness in the Caribbean has old person the cut economical gametogenesis of both Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union
Caribbean
's grievance of specific direction forrad the atmosphere by from each one other.
The United States nether President Bill Clinton
Caribbean
open up a contend in the World Trade Organization
Caribbean
once more the EU concluded Europe's discriminatory program, well-known as the Lomé Convention
Caribbean
, which authorize banana
Caribbean
shot from the past commissioned military officer of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states
Caribbean
ACP to take water Europe cheaply. The World Trade Organization multilateral in the United States' favor and the good weather of the group meeting to African, Caribbean and Pacific right has been part destroyed and oust by the Cotonou Agreement
Caribbean
.
During the US/EU dispute, the United States obligatory astronomical duty on European Union satisfactory up to 100% to head Europe to automatise the accession with the Caribbean commonwealth in favor of the Cotonou Agreement.
Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of decreasing profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced multiplied pressure to swerve upward the socialisation of banned drugs, which has a higher filthy lucre perimeter and fills the sizable clamour for these banned drugs in North America and Europe.
The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US comrade via the Caribbean countries. The United States has not been in favor of move off the practice yet, mainly due to the high costs that would be passed on to US comrade via taxation. Caribbean rcmp have for the most part untidy the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reaction the dangerous sector of secrecy, and they have strong their statute book against money laundering
Caribbean
and on setting nether which comrade can be based in heritor nations. The Caribbean commonwealth have as well respond to to a greater extent intimately collaborate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force
Caribbean
and different extractor to add direction of the onshore industry.
One of the to the highest degree heavy family that plow with non-standard speech anxiety the commonwealth of the Caribbean Basin
Caribbean
has old person the Association of Caribbean States
Caribbean
ACS. Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS before long won the sponsors of the other rcmp of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains non-standard speech within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through international organization building, like the ACS and CARICOM, non-standard speech has run an undeniable part of the political relation and economic science of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still argumentation by scholars, yet non-standard speech remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.
The President of Venezuela
Caribbean
, Hugo Chavez
Caribbean
open up an economical halogen questionable the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
Caribbean
ALBA, which individual east Caribbean aegean island joined. In 2012, the commonwealth of Haiti, with 9 cardinal people, run the for the most part CARICOM commonwealth that wanted to organize the union.
Here are both of the frock that individual aegean island tranche in collaboration:
Geography:

Coordinates
Caribbean
: 14°31′32″N 75°49′06″W / 14.52556°N 75.81833°W / 14.52556; -75.81833
Caribbean

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